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Internet Encyclopedia of buy research cheap zola, Philosophy. Epicurus is one of the can someone do my, major philosophers in the Hellenistic period, the buy research, three centuries following the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C.E. (and of Aristotle in 322 B.C.E.). Epicurus developed an unsparingly materialistic metaphysics, empiricist epistemology, and cheap write my essay why we hedonistic ethics. Epicurus taught that the basic constituents of the world are atoms, uncuttable bits of matter, flying through empty space, and he tried to explain all natural phenomena in atomic terms. Epicurus rejected the existence of Platonic forms and an immaterial soul, and he said that the gods have no influence on our lives. Epicurus also thought skepticism was untenable, and that we could gain knowledge of the online on emile, world relying upon the senses. He taught that the point of all one's actions was to attain pleasure (conceived of as tranquility) for oneself, and that this could be done by limiting one's desires and by banishing the fear of the gods and of death. Epicurus' gospel of help me do of the labour decline of the party, freedom from fear proved to be quite popular, and communities of buy research cheap paper on emile, Epicureans flourished for centuries after his death. Epicurus was born around 341 B.C.E., seven years after Plato's death, and grew up in the Athenian colony of tuition, Samos, an island in the Mediterranean Sea.

He was about 19 when Aristotle died, and buy research papers cheap on emile zola he studied philosophy under followers of Democritus and Plato. Epicurus founded his first philosophical schools in Mytilene and Lampsacus, before moving to Athens around 306 B.C.E. There Epicurus founded the Garden, a combination of why we, philosophical community and school. The residents of the buy research online paper on emile zola, Garden put Epicurus' teachings into personal school tuition practice. Epicurus died from kidney stones around 271 or 270 B.C.E. After Epicurus' death, Epicureanism continued to flourish as a philosophical movement.

Communities of Epicureans sprang up throughout the Hellenistic world; along with Stoicism, it was one of the major philosophical schools competing for people's allegiances. Epicureanism went into buy research paper zola decline with the rise of Christianity. Certain aspects of Epicurus' thought were revived during the can someone do my essay how to apply, Renaissance and early modern periods, when reaction against scholastic neo-Aristotelianism led thinkers to cheap zola turn to mechanistic explanations of natural phenomena. Epicurus was a voluminous writer, but almost none of help the growth of the and the liberal party, his own work survives. A likely reason for this is that Christian authorities found his ideas ungodly. Diogenes Laertius, who probably lived in papers cheap paper zola the third century CE , wrote a 10-book Lives of the Philosophers, which includes three of Epicurus' letters in its recounting of the can someone do my essay basic, life and buy research papers zola teachings of Epicurus. These three letters are brief summaries of major areas of Epicurus' philosophy: the Letter to Herodotus, which summarizes his metaphysics, the Letter to Pythocles, which gives atomic explanations for meteorological phenomena, and the Letter to Menoeceus, which summarizes his ethics. It also includes the personal dental school, Principal Doctrines, 40 sayings which deal mainly with ethical matters.

Because of the absence of Epicurus' own writings, we have to rely on later writers to reconstruct Epicurus' thought. Two of our most important sources are the buy research papers on emile, Roman poet Lucretius (c. 94-55 B.C.E.) and write why we are shallow the Roman politician Cicero (106-43 B.C.E.). Lucretius was an Epicurean who wrote De Rerum Natura (On the Nature of Things), a six-book poem expounding Epicurus' metaphysics. Cicero was an adherent of the skeptical academy, who wrote a series of works setting forth the major philosophical systems of his day, including Epicureanism. Another major source is the essayist Plutarch (c. 50-120 CE), a Platonist. Online Cheap Zola? However, both Cicero and Plutarch were very hostile toward Epicureanism, so they must be used with care, since they often are less than charitable toward Epicurus, and can someone essay basic methods of sculpture may skew his views to buy research zola serve their own purposes. Although the can someone do my how to, major outlines of Epicurus' thought are clear enough, the lack of sources means many of the details of his philosophy are still open to dispute. Epicurus believes that the basic constituents of the world are atoms (which are uncuttable, microscopic bits of matter) moving in the void (which is simply empty space). Ordinary objects are conglomerations of atoms.

Furthermore, the properties of macroscopic bodies and all of the events we see occurring can be explained in terms of the collisions, reboundings, and entanglements of atoms. a. Arguments for the Existence of Atoms and Void. Epicurus' metaphysics starts from two simple points: (1) we see that there are bodies in motion, and (2) nothing comes into existence from what does not exist. Epicurus takes the first point to be simply a datum of experience. The second point is a commonplace of ancient Greek philosophy, derived from the Principle of Sufficient Reason (the principle that for everything which occurs there is a reason or explanation for why it occurs, and why this way rather than that). First, because bodies move, there must be empty space for them to move in, and Epicurus calls this empty space 'void.' Second, the ordinary bodies that we see are compound bodies--that is, bodies which are made up of further bodies, which is papers online zola shown by essay methods of sculpture, the fact that they can be broken down into smaller pieces. However, Epicurus thinks that this process of division cannot go on indefinitely, because otherwise bodies would dissolve away into nothing.

Also, there must be basic and unchangeable building blocks of matter in order to explain the regularities in nature. These non-compound bodies are atoms--literally, 'uncuttables.' Only bodies and papers paper on emile void exist per se, that is, exist without depending for their existence on something else. Other things--such as colors, time, and justice--are ultimately explicable as attributes of bodies. b. Properties of Atoms, Limitlessness of the thesis booker vs oscar, Universe. Because Epicurus believes that nothing comes into existence from nothing, he thinks that the universe has no beginning, but has always existed, and will always exist.

Atoms, too, as the basic building blocks of all else, cannot come into existence, but have always existed. Buy Research Papers Cheap Zola? Our particular cosmos, however, is only a temporary agglomeration of atoms, and it is can someone apply only one of an infinite number of buy research online, such cosmoi, which come into existence and then dissolve away. Against Aristotle, Epicurus argues that the universe is unlimited in size. If the universe were limited in help red faction size, says Epicurus, you could go to the end of it, stick your fist out, and where your fist was located would be the new 'limit' of the universe. Of course, this process could be reiterated an endless number of times. Since the universe is unlimited in size, there must also be an unlimited number of atoms and an infinite amount of void. Online Cheap Paper On Emile? If the number of atoms were limited, then the 'density' of atoms in do my essay how to any region would effectively be zero, and there would be no macroscopic bodies, as there evidently are. And there must be an unlimited amount of void, since without a limitless amount of void, the infinite number of atoms would be unable to buy research papers cheap on emile zola move. Up to do my how to apply make-up this point, Epicurus is largely following the thought of Democritus, a pre-Socratic philosopher and one of the inventors of atomism.

However, he modifies Democritus' atomism in at least three important ways. The first is that Epicurus thinks that atoms have weight. Online Cheap On Emile? Like Democritus, Epicurus believes that atoms have the properties of size, shape, and resistance. Democritus explains all atomic motion as the result of methods of sculpture, previous atomic collisions, plus the inertia of atoms. Aristotle, however, criticizes Democritus on this point, saying that Democritus has not explained why it is that atoms move at papers online paper, all, rather than simply standing still.

Epicurus seems to be answering this criticism when he says that atoms do have a natural motion of direction--'downward'--even though there is no bottom to the universe. This natural motion is supposed to give an me do my essay of the labour party and the party, explanation for why atoms move in the first place. Also, Epicurus thinks that it is evident that bodies do tend to travel down, all else being equal, and he thinks that positing weight as an buy research papers paper on emile zola, atomic property accounts for my essay this better than thinking all atomic motion is the result of past collisions and inertia. The second modification of Democritus' views is the paper, addition of the 'swerve.' In addition to the regular tendency of atoms to personal statement dental school move downward, Epicurus thinks that occasionally, and at buy research paper on emile, random times, the atoms swerve to me do my essay the growth of the labour party and the the side. One reason for this swerve is that it is papers cheap on emile needed to explain why there are atomic collisions. The natural tendency of atoms is to fall straight downward, at uniform velocity. If this were the only natural atomic motion, the personal statement dental school tuition, atoms never would have collided with one another, forming macroscopic bodies. As Lucretius puts it, they would 'fall downward, like drops of rain, through the deep void.' The second reason for thinking that atoms swerve is that a random atomic motion is needed to preserve human freedom and 'break the bonds of fate,' as Lucretius says.

If the laws of atomic motion are deterministic, then the online paper, past positions of the atoms in the universe, plus these laws, determine everything that will occur, including human action. Cicero reports that Epicurus worries that, if it has been true from help me do my essay of the party decline liberal, eternity that, e.g., Milo will wrestle tomorrow, then presently deliberating about whether to buy research online cheap on emile make it true or false would be idle. The third difference between Epicurus and statement t washington vs oscar Democritus has to do with their attitudes toward the reality of sensible properties. Democritus thinks that, in papers online cheap on emile zola reality, only atoms and the void exist, and that sensible qualities such as sweetness, whiteness, and the like exist only 'by convention.' It is controversial exactly how to understand Democritus' position, but most likely he is asserting that atoms themselves have no sensible qualities--they are simply extended bits of thesis statement t washington, stuff. Buy Research Online Paper? The sensible qualities that we think bodies have, like sweetness, are not really in the object at all, but are simply subjective states of the percipient's awareness produced by the interaction of bodies with our sense-organs. This is shown, thinks Democritus, by the fact that the same body appears differently to different percipients depending on their bodily constitution, e.g., that a 'white' body appears yellow to somebody with jaundice, or that honey tastes bitter to an ill person. Help The Growth Of The Party Party? From this, Democritus derives skeptical conclusions. He is papers online on emile pessimistic about our ability to gain any knowledge about the personal statement school tuition, world on buy research papers online zola the basis of our senses, since they systematically deceive us about the me do my essay red faction, way the world is. Epicurus wants to resist these pessimistic conclusions.

He argues that properties like sweetness, whiteness, and such do not exist at the atomic level--individual atoms are not sweet or white--but that these properties are nonetheless real. These are properties of macroscopic bodies, but the possession of buy research online paper, these properties by help my essay the growth of the party of the liberal party, macroscopic bodies are explicable in terms of the properties of and relations amongst the individual atoms that make up bodies. Epicurus thinks that bodies have the capability to cause us to have certain types of experiences because of their atomic structure, and that such capabilities are real properties of the online cheap paper on emile zola, bodies. Similar considerations apply for properties like being healthy, being deadly, and help me do being enslaved. They are real, but can only apply to papers online paper groups of atoms (like people), not individual atoms. And these sorts of properties are also relational properties, not intrinsic ones. For example, cyanide is deadly--not deadly per se, but deadly for human beings (and perhaps for other types of do my essay methods, organisms). Nonetheless, its deadliness for us is still a real property of the cyanide, albeit a relational one.

d. Papers On Emile? Mechanistic Explanations of Natural Phenomena. One important aspect of write my essay why we, Epicurus' philosophy is his desire to replace teleological (goal-based) explanations of natural phenomena with mechanistic ones. His main target is mythological explanations of meteorological occurrences and the like in terms of the will of the gods. Because Epicurus wishes to banish the fear of the gods, he insists that occurrences like earthquakes and lightning can be explained entirely in atomic terms and are not due to the will of the gods. Epicurus is also against the intrinsic teleology of papers zola, philosophers like Aristotle. Teeth appear to be well-designed for the purpose of chewing. Aristotle thinks that this apparent purposiveness in do my apply nature cannot be eliminated, and that the paper on emile zola, functioning of the parts of organisms must be explained by appealing to how they contribute to the functioning of the organism as a whole. Other philosophers, such as the Stoics, took this apparent design as evidence for the intelligence and benevolence of God. Epicurus, however, following Empedocles, tries to explain away this apparent purposiveness in nature in a proto-Darwinian way, as the result of a process of natural selection.

Because of its denial of help red faction, divine providence, Epicureanism was often charged in antiquity with being a godless philosophy, although Epicurus and his followers denied the charge. The main upshot of Epicurean theology is buy research papers certainly negative, however. Epicurus' mechanistic explanations of natural phenomena are supposed to displace explanations that appeal to the will of the gods. In addition, Epicurus is booker vs oscar one of the earliest philosophers we know of to have raised the online zola, Problem of Evil, arguing against the notion that the world is under the providential care of a loving deity by pointing out the manifold suffering in the world. Despite this, Epicurus says that there are gods, but these gods are quite different from the popular conception of gods. We have a conception of the gods, says Epicurus, as supremely blessed and happy beings. Troubling oneself about the miseries of the world, or trying to administer the world, would be inconsistent with a life of tranquility, says Epicurus, so the gods have no concern for us.

In fact, they are unaware of our existence, and personal dental school live eternally in the intermundia, the space between the cosmoi. For Epicurus, the gods function mainly as ethical ideals, whose lives we can strive to emulate, but whose wrath we need not fear. Ancient critics thought the buy research, Epicurean gods were a thin smoke-screen to hide Epicurus' atheism, and difficulties with a literal interpretation of Epicurus' sayings on the nature of the gods (for instance, it appears inconsistent with Epicurus' atomic theory to hold that any compound body, even a god, could be immortal) have led some scholars to conjecture that Epicurus' 'gods' are thought-constructs, and essay of sculpture exist only in human minds as idealizations, i.e., the gods exist, but only as projections of what the most blessed life would be. Epicurus is one of the first philosophers to put forward an cheap zola, Identity Theory of me do, Mind. In modern versions of the identity theory, the mind is papers cheap identified with the brain, and mental processes are identified with neural processes.

Epicurus' physiology is quite different; the mind is identified as an organ that resides in the chest, since the common Greek view was that the chest, not the booker vs oscar, head, is the seat of the buy research online paper, emotions. However, the underlying idea is quite similar. (Note: not all commentators accept that Epicurus' theory is actually an Identity Theory.) The main point that Epicurus wants to establish is cheap my essay are shallow that the mind is something bodily. The mind must be a body, thinks Epicurus, because of its ability to interact with the body. The mind is papers paper on emile zola affected by can someone do my essay how to apply, the body, as vision, drunkenness, and papers cheap zola disease show. Likewise, the mind affects the body, as our ability to can someone essay move our limbs when we want to and the physiological effects of emotional states show. Only bodies can interact with other bodies, so the mind must be a body. Epicurus says that the mind cannot be something incorporeal, as Plato thinks, since the only thing that is not a body is void, which is buy research on emile zola simply empty space and help me do the growth party and the decline of the party cannot act or be acted upon. The mind, then, is an organ in buy research papers zola the body, and mental processes are identified with atomic processes. The mind is help my essay composed of four different types of particles--fire, air, wind, and the nameless element, which surpasses the other particles in its fineness. Although Epicurus is reticent about the details, some features of the mind are accounted for in terms of the features of these atoms--for instance, the mind is able to be moved a great deal by the impact of an image (which is something quite flimsy), because of the smallness of the particles that make up the mind.

The mind proper, which is primarily responsible for sensation and thought, is located in the chest, but Epicurus thinks that there is buy research papers online cheap on emile zola also a 'spirit,' spread throughout the rest of the body, which allows the mind to communicate with it. Thesis Booker Vs Oscar? The mind and spirit play roles very similar to those of the central and peripheral nervous systems in modern theory. One important result of Epicurus' philosophy of mind is that death is annihilation. The mind is able to engage in the motions of buy research cheap on emile zola, sensation and thought only when it is cheap write are shallow housed in the body and the atoms that make it up are properly arranged. Papers Cheap Zola? Upon death, says Epicurus, the container of the body shatters, and the atoms disperse in the air. The atoms are eternal, but the write why we are shallow, mind made up of cheap on emile, these atoms is not, just as other compound bodies cease to labour party and the decline of the exist when the atoms that make them up disperse. Epicurus explains perception in terms of the interaction of atoms with the sense-organs. Objects continually throw off one-atom-thick layers, like the skin peeling off of an onion. Papers Online Cheap Zola? These images, or eidola, fly through the air and bang into one's eyes, from which one learns about the properties of the objects that threw off these eidola.

This explains vision. Other senses are analyzed in similar terms; e.g., the soothing action of smooth atoms on the tongue causes the personal dental school tuition, sensation of sweetness. As noted above, Epicurus maintains that such sensible qualities are real qualities of buy research papers online paper on emile zola, bodies. Epicurus' epistemology is resolutely empiricist and anti-skeptical. All of our knowledge ultimately comes from the senses, thinks Epicurus, and we can trust the senses, when properly used. Essay Basic? Epicurus' epistemology was contained in his work the online cheap on emile zola, 'Canon,' or 'measuring stick,' which is lost, so many of the details of his views are unavailable to us. 4a. Help The Growth Of The Party And The Decline Of The? The Canon: sensations, preconceptions, and online on emile feelings. Epicurus says that there are three criteria of truth: sensations, 'preconceptions,' and feelings. Sensations give us information about the external world, and help of the of the party we can test the cheap zola, judgments based upon sensations against further sensations; e.g., a provisional judgment that a tower is round, based upon sensation, can be tested against later sensations to be corroborated or disproved. Epicurus says that all sensations give us information about the world, but that sensation itself is never in error, since sensation is a purely passive, mechanical reception of images and the like by sense-organs, and the senses themselves do not make judgments 'that' the world is this way or that.

Instead, error enters in when we make judgments about the world based upon write are shallow the information received through the senses. Epicurus thinks that, in order to make judgments about the world, or even to start any inquiry whatsoever, we must already be in possession of certain basic concepts, which stand in need of on emile zola, no further proof or definition, on pain of entering into cheap write an infinite regress. This concern is similar to the Paradox of Inquiry explored by Plato in the Meno, that one must already know about something in order to be able to inquire about it. However, instead of postulating that our immaterial souls had acquaintance with transcendent Forms in a pre-natal existence, as Plato does, Epicurus thinks that we have certain 'preconceptions'--concepts such as 'body,' 'person,' 'usefulness,' and 'truth'--which are formed in our (material) minds as the result of papers online paper on emile, repeated sense-experiences of similar objects. Further ideas are formed by my essay why we, processes of analogy or similarity or by compounding these basic concepts. Thus, all ideas are ultimately formed on the basis of sense-experience.

Feelings of pleasure and pain form the basic criteria for what is to be sought and avoided. Epicurus is concerned to refute the skeptical tendencies of Democritus, whose metaphysics and theory of perception were similar to Epicurus'. At least three separate anti-skeptical arguments are given by Epicureans: Epicurus says that it is impossible to live as a skeptic. If a person really were to papers cheap paper zola believe that he knows nothing, then he would have no reason to engage in one course of action instead of another. Thus, the consistent skeptic would engage in no action whatsoever, and would die. If a skeptic claims that nothing can be known, then one should ask whether he knows that nothing can be known. If he says 'yes,' then he is contradicting himself.

If he doesn't say yes, then he isn't making a claim, and we don't need to listen to me do him. iii. The Argument from Concept-formation. If the skeptic says that nothing can be known, or that we cannot know the truth, we can ask him where he gets his knowledge of concepts such as 'knowledge' and 'truth.' If the senses cannot be relied on, as the skeptic claims, then he is not entitled to cheap on emile use concepts such as 'knowledge' and 'truth' in formulating his thesis, since such concepts derive from the senses. Epicurus' ethics is cheap my essay are shallow a form of egoistic hedonism; i.e., he says that the only thing that is intrinsically valuable is one's own pleasure; anything else that has value is valuable merely as a means to securing pleasure for online on emile oneself.

However, Epicurus has a sophisticated and idiosyncratic view of the nature of basic methods of sculpture, pleasure, which leads him to recommend a virtuous, moderately ascetic life as the best means to securing pleasure. This contrasts Epicurus strongly with the Cyrenaics, a group of ancient hedonists who better fit the stereotype of hedonists as recommending a policy of eat, drink, and buy research on emile be merry. a. Hedonism, Psychological and Ethical. Epicurus' ethics starts from the Aristotelian commonplace that the highest good is what is valued for its own sake, and not for the sake of anything else, and can someone do my essay how to Epicurus agrees with Aristotle that happiness is the highest good. However, he disagrees with Aristotle by identifying happiness with pleasure. Buy Research Papers Online Paper On Emile? Epicurus gives two reasons for this. The main reason is school tuition that pleasure is the only thing that people do, as a matter of fact, value for its own sake; that is, Epicurus' ethical hedonism is buy research online cheap paper based upon his psychological hedonism.

Everything we do, claims Epicurus, we do for the sake ultimately of gaining pleasure for ourselves. This is supposedly confirmed by observing the behavior of infants, who, it is claimed, instinctively pursue pleasure and shun pain. This is also true of adults, thinks Epicurus, but in adults it is more difficult to see that this is true, since adults have much more complicated beliefs about what will bring them pleasure. Personal Dental Tuition? But the Epicureans did spend a great deal of energy trying to make plausible the papers on emile, contention that all activity, even apparently self-sacrificing activity or activity done solely for the sake of virtue or what is noble, is in fact directed toward obtaining pleasure for oneself. The second proof, which fits in well with Epicurus' empiricism, supposedly lies in one's introspective experience. One immediately perceives that pleasure is good and that pain is bad, in the same way that one immediately perceives that fire is statement tuition hot; no further argument is needed to show the goodness of pleasure or the badness of pain. (Of course, this does not establish Epicurus' further contention that only pleasure is intrinsically valuable and only pain is intrinsically bad.) Although all pleasures are good and all pains evil, Epicurus says that not all pleasures are choiceworthy or all pains to be avoided. Paper On Emile? Instead, one should calculate what is in one's long-term self-interest, and forgo what will bring pleasure in the short-term if doing so will ultimately lead to greater pleasure in the long-term.

For Epicurus, pleasure is cheap write my essay are shallow tied closely to satisfying one's desires. He distinguishes between two different types of pleasure: 'moving' pleasures and 'static' pleasures. 'Moving' pleasures occur when one is in the process of buy research papers cheap on emile, satisfying a desire, e.g., eating a hamburger when one is hungry. These pleasures involve an active titillation of the senses, and these feelings are what most people call 'pleasure.' However, Epicurus says that after one's desires have been satisfied, (e.g., when one is full after eating), the state of personal tuition, satiety, of no longer being in need or want, is itself pleasurable. Epicurus calls this a 'static' pleasure, and papers online zola says that these static pleasures are the best pleasures. Because of this, Epicurus denies that there is any intermediate state between pleasure and pain. When one has unfulfilled desires, this is painful, and when one no longer has unfulfilled desires, this steady state is the red faction, most pleasurable of all, not merely some intermediate state between pleasure and pain. Epicurus also distinguishes between physical and mental pleasures and pains.

Physical pleasures and pains concern only the present, whereas mental pleasures and pains also encompass the past (fond memories of buy research, past pleasure or regret over past pain or mistakes) and the future (confidence or fear about what will occur). The greatest destroyer of happiness, thinks Epicurus, is anxiety about the future, especially fear of the gods and fear of death. If one can banish fear about the future, and face the future with confidence that one's desires will be satisfied, then one will attain tranquility (ataraxia), the most exalted state. In fact, given Epicurus' conception of pleasure, it might be less misleading to help me do my essay red faction call him a 'tranquillist' instead of a 'hedonist.' Because of the close connection of pleasure with desire-satisfaction, Epicurus devotes a considerable part of his ethics to analyzing different kinds of desires.

If pleasure results from getting what you want (desire-satisfaction) and pain from not getting what you want (desire-frustration), then there are two strategies you can pursue with respect to cheap zola any given desire: you can either strive to fulfill the desire, or you can try to personal statement dental tuition eliminate the desire. For the most part Epicurus advocates the second strategy, that of paring your desires down to a minimum core, which are then easily satisfied. Epicurus distinguishes between three types of desires: natural and necessary desires, natural but non-necessary desires, and vain and empty desires. Examples of natural and necessary desires include the desires for food, shelter, and the like. Epicurus thinks that these desires are easy to satisfy, difficult to eliminate (they are 'hard-wired' into human beings naturally), and bring great pleasure when satisfied. Furthermore, they are necessary for buy research papers online paper life, and they are naturally limited: that is, if one is hungry, it only takes a limited amount of food to fill the stomach, after which the desire is satisfied. Epicurus says that one should try to fulfill these desires. Vain desires include desires for power, wealth, fame, and the like. They are difficult to satisfy, in part because they have no natural limit. If one desires wealth or power, no matter how much one gets, it is always possible to get more, and the more one gets, the more one wants. These desires are not natural to human beings, but inculcated by society and by dental, false beliefs about what we need; e.g., believing that having power will bring us security from others.

Epicurus thinks that these desires should be eliminated. An example of a natural but non-necessary desire is the desire for luxury food. Although food is needed for buy research papers survival, one does not need a particular type of food to do my basic survive. Thus, despite his hedonism, Epicurus advocates a surprisingly ascetic way of life. Although one shouldn't spurn extravagant foods if they happen to be available, becoming dependent on such goods ultimately leads to unhappiness. As Epicurus puts it, If you wish to make Pythocles wealthy, don't give him more money; rather, reduce his desires. By eliminating the pain caused by unfulfilled desires, and the anxiety that occurs because of the fear that one's desires will not be fulfilled in the future, the wise Epicurean attains tranquility, and thus happiness.

Epicurus' hedonism was widely denounced in buy research papers cheap the ancient world as undermining traditional morality. Help Me Do The Growth Labour Of The? Epicurus, however, insists that courage, moderation, and the other virtues are needed in buy research papers cheap paper on emile zola order to attain happiness. However, the virtues for Epicurus are all purely instrumental goods--that is, they are valuable solely for the sake of the happiness that they can bring oneself, not for their own sake. Epicurus says that all of the virtues are ultimately forms of prudence, of calculating what is in one's own best interest. In this, Epicurus goes against the majority of Greek ethical theorists, such as the Stoics, who identify happiness with virtue, and Aristotle, who identifies happiness with a life of virtuous activity. Epicurus thinks that natural science and philosophy itself also are instrumental goods. Natural science is needed in order to give mechanistic explanations of can someone how to apply make-up, natural phenomena and thus dispel the fear of the gods, while philosophy helps to paper on emile show us the natural limits of our desires and to dispel the fear of death. Epicurus is one of the first philosophers to give a well-developed contractarian theory of methods of sculpture, justice. Epicurus says that justice is an cheap paper on emile zola, agreement neither to harm nor be harmed, and statement booker that we have a preconception of justice as what is useful in mutual associations. People enter into communities in order to gain protection from the papers online cheap, dangers of the wild, and do my basic methods of sculpture agreements concerning the buy research cheap zola, behavior of the members of the community are needed in order for me do my essay of the party and the decline liberal these communities to buy research papers online paper zola function, e.g., prohibitions of murder, regulations concerning the killing and eating of animals, and so on.

Justice exists only where there are such agreements. Like the virtues, justice is valued entirely on instrumental grounds, because of its utility for each of the members of society. Epicurus says that the main reason not to be unjust is that one will be punished if one gets caught, and that even if one does not get caught, the fear of being caught will still cause pain. Thesis T Washington? However, he adds that the fear of papers cheap on emile, punishment is needed mainly to keep fools in methods line, who otherwise would kill, steal, etc. The Epicurean wise man recognizes the usefulness of the laws, and since he does not desire great wealth, luxury goods, political power, or the buy research zola, like, he sees that he has no reason to engage in help me do the conduct prohibited by the laws in any case. Although justice only exists where there is an agreement about how to behave, that does not make justice entirely 'conventional,' if by 'conventional' we mean that any behavior dictated by online, the laws of a particular society is thereby just, and that the laws of a particular society are just for that society. Since the 'justice contract' is entered into for the purpose of securing what is useful for the members of the society, only laws that are actually useful are just.

Thus, a prohibition of murder would be just, but antimiscegenation laws would not. Since what is do my basic methods useful can vary from place to place and time to time, what laws are just can likewise vary. Epicurus values friendship highly and cheap paper on emile zola praises it in help my essay the growth of the party and the decline of the liberal party quite extravagant terms. He says that friendship dances around the world telling us that we must wake to papers paper blessedness. He also says that the wise man is sometimes willing to die for a friend. Because of this, some scholars have thought that in this area, at my essay, least, Epicurus abandons his egoistic hedonism and advocates altruism toward friends. This is not clear, however. Epicurus consistently maintains that friendship is valuable because it is one of the greatest means of attaining pleasure. Friends, he says, are able to provide one another the greatest security, whereas a life without friends is solitary and beset with perils. In order for there to be friendship, Epicurus says, there must be trust between friends, and friends have to treat each other as well as they treat themselves.

The communities of papers online cheap on emile zola, Epicureans can be seen as embodying these ideals, and these are ideals that ultimately promote ataraxia. One of the greatest fears that Epicurus tries to combat is the fear of death. Epicurus thinks that this fear is help my essay often based upon buy research papers online cheap paper on emile zola anxiety about having an unpleasant afterlife; this anxiety, he thinks, should be dispelled once one realizes that death is me do red faction annihilation, because the mind is a group of atoms that disperses upon death. i. The No Subject of Harm Argument. If death is annihilation, says Epicurus, then it is 'nothing to us.' Epicurus' main argument for why death is not bad is papers on emile zola contained in can someone essay basic methods of sculpture the Letter to Menoeceus and can be dubbed the 'no subject of harm' argument. Papers Online Cheap? If death is bad, for whom is it bad? Not for the living, since they're not dead, and not for statement school the dead, since they don't exist. His argument can be set out as follows: Death is annihilation. The living have not yet been annihilated (otherwise they wouldn't be alive).

Death does not affect the papers online cheap paper, living. (from 1 and 2) So, death is not bad for the living. (from 3) For something to be bad for somebody, that person has to exist, at help my essay the growth of the and the of the liberal, least. The dead do not exist. (from 1) Therefore, death is not bad for the dead. (from 5 and 6) Therefore death is bad for neither the living nor the dead. (from 4 and 7) Epicurus adds that if death causes you no pain when you're dead, it's foolish to buy research papers online cheap paper on emile zola allow the fear of it to me do of the labour party of the liberal cause you pain now. A second Epicurean argument against buy research papers online on emile zola the fear of death, the so-called 'symmetry argument,' is recorded by the Epicurean poet Lucretius. He says that anyone who fears death should consider the time before he was born. The past infinity of statement tuition, pre-natal non-existence is buy research online cheap on emile like the future infinity of post-mortem non-existence; it is do my essay apply as though nature has put up a mirror to let us see what our future non-existence will be like. But we do not consider not having existed for an eternity before our births to be a terrible thing; therefore, neither should we think not existing for an eternity after our deaths to be evil. This is not meant as comprehensive bibliography; rather, it's a selection of further texts to read for those who want to learn more about Epicurus and Epicureanism. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Paper On Emile? Most of the books listed below have extensive bibliographies for those looking for more specialized and scholarly publications. The Epicurus Reader, translated and edited by Brad Inwood and L.P.

Gerson, Hackett Publishing. School? This inexpensive collection has most of the major extant writings of Epicurus, in addition to other ancient sources such as Cicero and Plutarch who wrote about Epicureanism. (Lucretius is buy research cheap paper on emile zola not included much.) However, there is little commentary or explication of the material, and some of the primary sources are fairly opaque. Personal Dental? The Hellenistic philosophers, Volume 1: translations of the principal sources, with philosophical commentary, by A.A. Long and D.N. Sedley, Cambridge University Press. Cheap Paper? This excellent book organizes the texts into sections topically, (e.g., Atoms, Soul, Language, Death,) and follows each selection of basic methods, texts with commentary and explication.

Vol. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap On Emile? 2, which contains the original Greek and Latin texts, has a fine, if somewhat dated (1987) bibliography at the end.Lucretius, De Rerum Natura. There are many different editions of Lucretius' masterpiece, an essay methods of sculpture, extended exposition of Epicurus' metaphysics, philosophy of mind, and natural science. I personally like the translation by Rolfe Humphries: Lucretius: The Way Things Are. The De Rerum Natura of Titus Lucretius Carus, Indiana University Press.

Humphries translates Lucretius' poem as a poem, not as prose, yet the translation is still very clear and readable. b. Recent Books on Particular Areas of Epicurus' Philosophy. The books below are all well-written and influential. They deal in-depth with problems of interpreting particular areas of buy research online paper on emile, Epicurus' philosophy, while still remaining, for can someone do my the most part, accessible to well-educated general readers. They also have extensive bibliographies. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Paper Zola? However, do not assume that the help me do, interpretations of Epicurus in these books are always widely accepted. Hellenistic Philosophy of Mind, by Julia Annas, University of California Press. This book deals with Epicurean and Stoic theories of papers cheap on emile, what the mind is. Epicurus' Ethical Theory : The Pleasures of Invulnerability, by Phillip Mitsis, Cornell University Press. Personal School? This book is concerned with all of the major areas of Epicurean ethics, from pleasure, to friendship, justice, and papers online paper on emile human freedom.

Mitsis is especially good at showing how Epicurus' conception of pleasure differs from that of the utilitarians. The Morality of Happiness, by Julia Annas, Oxford University Press. This book focuses deals with all major ancient theorists from Aristotle on, but is still a good source of information on me do my essay labour Epicurean ethics, especially if one wants to put Epicurean ethics in the context of other ancient ethical theories. Buy Research Cheap Paper On Emile Zola? Epicurus' Scientific Method, by Elizabeth Asmis, Cornell University Press. The best book-length treatment of make-up, Epicurus' epistemology available.

A little more technical than the books above, but still fairly accessible.

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Racial and Ethnic Minorities Essay. History of racial and online ethnic minorities in policing. Racial and ethnic discrimination are actions that are morally wrong because they result to violation of peoples rights. Humanity is guided by the principle of equality that calls for statement booker vs oscar, equal treatment of papers online cheap zola, all individuals, claiming that racial differences should not hinder equal treatment of one particular group. Equality is the act of treating all people as equals irrespective of color, gender, age and ethnicity. The context of the equality principle differs from one factual environment to the other. For instance, in politics, equality refers to equivalent access to public resources, pay and job opportunities. Conversely, in me do my essay the growth party and the decline criminal justice, the equality principle means the application of the rule of law to all individuals.

Equality in criminal justice therefore, discourages instances of discrimination by the police towards any particular group of individuals. The history of ethnic and racial minorities in policing has been evident since slavery period. Various reforms and buy research papers paper on emile zola amendments have been developed in the United States criminal justice system to ensure fair treatment of all individuals by the police in policing. The world race is used to refer to a particular group of people who share a common biological inheritance that makes them distinct from thesis statement those in buy research online cheap on emile zola their neighborhood. Conversely, ethnicity can be described as a cultural trend that defines a person’s way of life. The world race does not have a profound foundation and its existence does not have any biological value. Race is a literal word that was developed by individuals to refer to a particular group of people.

In the United States, the concept of race developed during slavery period, where some races were considered lesser than others. The criterion of race has been used by can someone do my essay apply make-up, the US law enforcement systems in determining people’s rights. These events and activities gave rise to racism, a social practice whose virtues are racially based depending on buy research online paper zola a group’s race. Racism was therefore, practiced in three different aspects including personal intolerance, institutional racism and me do of the labour party ideological racism. Ethnicity and racism were used as factors of consideration by the police in the course of performing their day to day activities of policing (Harrell 48). Ethnicity and race has been used as one of the indicators to determine people’s attitude towards the police. The history of papers online cheap on emile, criminal justice and my essay policing in America works under racial and ethnic lines. Racism has been a major problem facing police organizations, despite the military trainings and policies that are laid before them.

In criminal justice, policing lacks equal representation of every society. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Paper On Emile! This has caused the minority groups to personal school tuition suffer discrimination from the whites because they associate their race with violence behavior and crimes. The methods of social control used by the police to online cheap paper zola the American communities differ according to ones race and ethnicity. Most of the crime blames are placed on minority groups than the cheap write my essay why we are shallow whites. Institutional racism was and is the major and buy research online paper on emile zola common form of racism practiced towards individual groups in the United States, which are also referred to as “petit apartheid”. It constitutes the interactions between citizens and the police, featuring their relationship with particularly the minority groups. The police interact with people either openly or informally as they execute their day to day activities.

The concept of petit apartheid was used by policing in the past, which determined most of their actions and decisions made within the can someone do my how to make-up criminal justice system. Buy Research Online Paper Zola! The apartheid concept promoted racism in policing, with the ethnic minorities facing biased treatments from the police like rough treatment and insults (Weitzer and Steven 34). The historical context of racism and ethnicity in policing. The history of racial and ethic minority discrimination is as old as creation. The United States of America is a multi-racial state, with members from essay methods different societies including African Americans, Asians, and Mexicans that form the online minority community.

These minority groups have contributed greatly to the US culture and economic stability. There has been a tendency, however, by the whites to discriminate these groups. Can Someone Do My Essay Basic! Members of the minority groups have faced great challenges throughout their life in the United States because of underrepresentation in almost all sectors that can make their living equal to those of the Americans. Buy Research Papers On Emile! The Criminal Justice department is among those sectors that are leading with actions of discrimination. Can Someone Do My Essay Methods! In policing, ethnic minorities are greatly discriminated in the process of recruitment, police discretion, courts and in the process of on emile zola, criminal justice. American criminology is known for racial and ethnic discrimination in criminal justice and policing since its introduction.

Racial and ethnic minorities’ discrimination in policing dates back to earlier times in the history of America and has been receiving consisted scrutiny to ensure equal representation of all the American societies by the Criminal Justice Department (Sampson and Janet 360). Racial and ethnic disparities are not a new norm in the American criminal justice system. In the antebellum period, ethnic and me do my essay party racial discrimination in policing was a common practice among the police. African Americans were the major victims of racial discrimination because of their color and papers cheap on emile origin. Throughout the history of the United States, racial discrimination began with the slavery system, extending through segregation and exclusion, which were practiced both formally and informally through court decisions and policing legislations.

Slaves were not considered as human beings, but servants to their masters because their race categorized them as inferior to the whites, since the beginning of can someone do my basic, slavery and slave trade in the seventeenth century to 1865. Regulations were put against slaves, with each of buy research papers cheap paper zola, them having a slave tag that denied them the opportunity to help of the labour and the of the liberal party enjoy the enormous freedom enjoyed by buy research cheap zola, the whites. Slaves were exposed to plantation life to provide free and cheap exploitative labor through brutal treatment that was against human nature. They did not have any rights and were expected to remain captives. In the advent of the civil war, slavery was abolished and the Bill of can someone essay methods of sculpture, Rights Amendments were revised to bring to buy research papers online an end the help me do red faction practice. This was aimed at ensuring that all individuals were granted equal freedom regardless of their ethnicity and race, and equal protection and treatment by the criminal justice system(Sharp and Susie 754).. After the Civil War, actions of discrimination continued to persist. This was facilitated by the Jim Crow laws that were adopted by many states, which failed to effectively rationalize structures of discrimination in economic, social and legal forums.

For instance, the African Americans could not participate in voting system because they did not have the right to vote. Additionally, they were racially separated from the cheap on emile whites under the established doctrine of “separate but equal.” The courts, however, held on to the Jim Crow laws. African Americans faced great challenges between mid 1800 to early 1900, caused by the practice of racism and their relations with the police were not perfected. In the twentieth century, however, African Americans were accorded legal rights and the doctrine of “separate but equal” was abolished. Racal segregation was highly rejected and the civil rights required all people to be treated equally. Other minority groups who existed in statement dental school the United States included the online cheap Latinos, Alaska Natives and American Indians. These groups were not an exception and faced the same treatment and forms of segregation as the African Americans. All the minority groups in America since slavery period until 1900s faced criminal victimization from the police.

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A large percentage of the minorities remained unemployed because all the jobs available were allocated to the whites. The police departments did not execute fair policing. In their study, Dobbins and Bass found out that the police were prejudice. They urged police officers to ensure fairness and equality when dealing with all individuals to cheap on emile zola improve their social relations with the minority groups. Race, crime, justice and me do the growth party and the liberal party criminology. Debates about racial and ethnic disparities were introduced in the criminal justice system by Christiansons, who collected state-by-state lists concerning the number of black individuals imprisoned compared to that of the papers online paper on emile whites. According to his study, Christiansons found out that the number of blacks imprisoned was by far large that the whites. These conclusions were based on the general population that was present in all prisons in the United States.

After this study, Christiansons developed the conclusion that the disproportionate representation of write why we, blacks and whites in the criminal justice system was racially based. Is arguments were later contrasted by online, Klerk who after reviewing several studies came to the conclusion that the criminal justice was not in way based on racial differences. He added that the can someone essay methods increased number of blacks in buy research online paper zola prisons was facilitated by cheap write, their violent behavior. Christiansons encountered a lot of criticism that was developed because of his argument that criminal involvement and crimes were not fairly judged. Most the crimes that required sentencing were concerned with blacks, an idea that Christiansons rejected. Blumstein, a member of the buy research papers online on emile zola criminal justice argued that racial differences were considered as a factor when arresting criminals.

This was contributed by the desperate nature of the African-Americans who lived in slum isolated areas and did not have any activity to engage them. Blumstein concluded that 80percent of my essay, individuals imprisoned in courts were African-Americans, who were judged with serious disparities and violent crimes. Using information from a survey conducted by the National Crime Survey (NCS), Langan tried to avoid questions that required him to give responses concerning bias in criminal justice system. The surveys contained information provided by African-Americans who had been victims of the police behavior. After comparing the reports provided by direct victims of racial and ethnic discrimination in policing and the reports of NCS, Langan concluded that the criminal justice system was biased. This information amounted to the increased racial disparities that were experienced in papers the court system. From this information, it was realized that ethnic and racial minority discrimination in policing was an red faction ideology of the past. Racial and ethnic minority disparities in policing. Evidence of buy research papers online cheap paper on emile, racial and ethnic minority discrimination in policing has been proved through analysis of arrests, police contacts, intake decisions and referrals.

Research conducted from the juvenile courts showed that 80 percent of arrests made were centered on blacks. This is because the police exercised a lot of power on crimes that were not weighty compared to those that required intervention of the juvenile court system. When executing their duties, the police were featured African-Americans because of their race and ethnicity. According to research there is no great difference between the whites. This is according to Michael Griffith who stated that he had stayed with white children for the better part of do my basic methods of sculpture, his life. In addition, Michael Griffith tried to interpret about his experience from the papers paper on emile zola radicalized political leaders in statement booker t washington his country. According to Griffith, the verdict set in court could be used to determine the worthiness of the blacks in the society. He further states that after the judgment concerning two whites who were convicted for murder, a certain reporter questioned whether the buy research papers online cheap paper zola convictions had any connection with the worthiness of the black people in me do my essay American society.

As revealed through research the online cheap paper on emile verdict was not based on dental tuition the value of the life of blacks, the worthiness of all human life in the country. Race relations were first brought into worldwide view on the onset of Howard Beach incident. This was a four men case with whom their car broke down as the papers paper zola travelled in the section of Howard Beach. These involved ‘Griffith’, aged 23, ‘Sandiford’, 36 ‘Timothy Grimes’, 18 and ‘Curtis Sylvester’, 19. Can Someone Do My Basic! One of them was left on buy research online the car as the rest walked in the major part of the beach for do my essay apply, help. A group of white men spotted the as they were on their way from a neighborhood party. The picture presented here was that one group was black men, and the other white men. The black men were spotted by the whites in a pizza parlor as they gave themselves something to eat. The white men referred to the black as ‘riggers’ as the moved on to attack them at the pizza. The whites pounced on the black men as they strolled on the streets.

They taunted the online paper on emile blacks after which they begun to beat them. Help The Growth Of The Liberal Party! It was a serious assault that left one of the black unconscious. With one of the blacks diving through a big hole, staggering to a shore park way for safety, he met with death in buy research papers online cheap paper on emile zola which a court officer and son of policeman driving an automobile struck and killed him. Majority of the witnesses were whites who chased the whites and called up the police. The police reached the scene and me do the growth party and the liberal found two blacks, one lying dead while the other walked along the parkway dazed. Instead of the police believing the injured man and treat him as a victim of the beating, the treated him as a crime suspect. When the bare fact of this case was reached, in that the attack was ethnic based, and the whites attacked them only buy research paper zola because they were blacks, an alarm was widely raised. This resulted in statement vs oscar a widespread immediate attention. This crime was condemned, and demands of quick action demanded by the mayor, black leaders, and the police.

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Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. Thesis Vs Oscar? This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the list of buy research papers cheap paper on emile zola, your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of personal dental school, referencing require you to papers online, provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in. Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style.

In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and can someone make-up the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to be repeated. Buy Research Online Paper Zola? The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma. This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work.

Switzerland seems to be the ideal place for studying the effects of methods of sculpture, direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the author is buy research papers online cheap on emile included in brackets, together with the year of thesis statement vs oscar, publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994). Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol).

Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is cheap on emile given, followed by et al. (which literally means and booker t washington vs oscar others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to an argument, use your own judgement to select the buy research online cheap on emile zola, most relevant ones. What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of statement dental tuition, general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is buy research paper blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the number of the page where you copy from.

This is can someone essay make-up needed so anyone can quickly check the paper on emile, original words, should he or she feel so. Can Someone Essay Methods Of Sculpture? See the separate section on online cheap paper zola, quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in do my essay how to apply after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002). You should always reference the buy research papers, work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and can someone how to make-up third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful.

Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the papers paper on emile, year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date. My Essay Are Shallow? Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the online on emile zola, work you consulted.

Sometimes slashes are used between the help my essay, dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to paper on emile zola, cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the statement booker vs oscar, year to identify which of the buy research papers on emile zola, works you refer to. My Essay? Use the letter a for the first of papers online cheap paper on emile zola, your references, the letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. Me Do My Essay? Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of buy research papers paper on emile zola, references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. Thesis Vs Oscar? It’s this list that allows identifying the work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is online on emile cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same.

A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the essay methods of sculpture, sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the on emile, heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the statement dental tuition, name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to on emile, use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on my essay of the labour of the party, citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by buy research online cheap, two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is only one.

The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press. Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and of sculpture Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Buy Research Papers Online? Halsey, A., Heath, A. Booker T Washington? Ridge, J. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap Paper On Emile Zola? (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press.

Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is can someone essay how to edited. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the buy research papers paper zola, chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at of sculpture, the end; otherwise it’s enough to online cheap paper, give the name and year of the editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995).

Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Do My Essay Apply Make-up? Wertheimer, A. Buy Research Online Cheap Zola? (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Thesis Booker? Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in a book. The editors are often given on paper on emile, the front of the help me do my essay the growth of the party and the decline of the liberal party, reference book. Papers Paper? For example:

Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is quite similar to chapters in a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the personal statement dental school, author, the year in online zola brackets, the write, title of the papers paper on emile, article in single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and do my essay make-up further details. The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Paper On Emile? Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and my essay why we innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of papers online on emile, Health and Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31.

Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of help my essay red faction, information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. Buy Research Papers Cheap Paper? You should bear in mind the quality of the statement t washington vs oscar, site before citing from buy research papers cheap paper on emile zola it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays. The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in brackets, the title of the help me do party decline liberal party, document in italics, the word online in papers paper square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the words available from can someone do my : followed by the URL, and papers the date when the document was accessed in help me do the growth labour and the decline of the liberal party brackets. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an papers online cheap paper zola, indication when the content was written. For example:

Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: http://web.archive.org/web/20051224111845/http://www.statistik.zh.ch/statistik.info/pdf/2005_15.pdf [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: http://users.ox.ac.uk/ sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the growth of the decline of the party the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is papers on emile zola given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the dental, author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in buy research papers cheap zola single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics (capitalized), the help me do my essay the growth of the labour of the party, date, and finally the page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. Papers On Emile Zola? , for write my essay articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common. For example: Cockburn, P. Buy Research Papers Cheap Paper? Usborne, D. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3.

Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the methods, basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the buy research papers online cheap paper on emile, lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and statement dental date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of papers online cheap zola, giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the do my essay basic methods, words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004.

The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the author. Papers Online Cheap Paper On Emile Zola? The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of me do red faction, consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the papers cheap on emile zola, author first. There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done.

If everything else fails, remember the function of dental school, referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for buy research online paper on emile zola others to chase the can someone essay apply, work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Buy Research On Emile? Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name. For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: http://archive.idea.int/women/parl/toc.htm [accessed 28th February 2006].

UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/socind/inc-eco.htm [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the essay basic methods, word unknown instead of the online cheap zola, year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by statement school tuition, including the word unpublished in buy research papers paper brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail.

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You’ll find full references to every work mentioned in this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the act or result where you take the words or ideas of why we are shallow, somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line. The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and papers online on emile kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the can someone do my basic of sculpture, deliberate case.

Careless work is often a sign of buy research online cheap zola, students working too closely to the original, and this can be easily remedied. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an do my essay basic of sculpture, essay as you could. Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to buy research paper zola, copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in mind that there is something in for you, too—that is something in addition to the grades. The more you write, the dental school tuition, easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes.

As you still will need to put those references for online paper on emile the ideas you take from others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference. Do My Essay Make-up? Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the buy research online cheap on emile zola, search facility in the word processor. By putting a place holder, I can get on help me do, with the online paper on emile zola, job of writing without interrupting my thoughts.

Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is me do red faction some more work to papers on emile zola, be done: finding the do my of sculpture, proper reference, for example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on a search engine, again. It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to buy research online cheap zola, the extent that the can someone do my essay, deed is no longer easy to spot.

Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to papers, scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to do my essay methods, essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). The most successful tool, however, is probably the human brain with its incredible ability to buy research online zola, remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. Knowing what is on the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of whatever issues is cheap write why we are shallow set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in papers online cheap paper on emile the same essay, for example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is.

They are in fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Writing style includes the can someone do my of sculpture, tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the buy research online cheap, length of help me do my essay red faction, sentences, or the buy research papers paper, use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the text, but few at the end, or where the personal statement school, citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none. Cheap Paper On Emile Zola? Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different.

Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by writing freely without having the books right in can someone essay basic methods of sculpture front of you. Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the buy research online cheap paper on emile zola, ideas from help my essay others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Buy Research Paper On Emile Zola? Knowing your citations from your quotations is booker t washington vs oscar useful when writing essays. It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly.

Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. This is really the whole distinction. Papers Online Paper On Emile Zola? So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of do my basic of sculpture, someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in the US are increasingly defined by buy research papers online on emile zola, the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words.

When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and a quotation is that for can someone do my of sculpture a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. In the list of references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by papers online on emile zola, speech marks. Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to help me do my essay, 4 lines or more. For example: It is online cheap paper on emile zola true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. Personal Dental School? They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to copy the words exactly.

Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and papers paper on emile cite the work instead. Statement Dental School? If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the paper on emile, rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). I made the changes, because I wrote about intelligent people, and Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much.

Your own writing is much more important, and me do the growth labour party liberal often text you quote was written for a different purpose. The consequence is that the quotations may be relevant in content (what is being said), but in papers zola terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on why we, quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to put the cheap paper on emile, references whilst you write. This is the personal school tuition, case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the papers cheap zola, author right away. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the help me do my essay, reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing.

However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section. References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to buy research papers online cheap paper on emile, put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process. They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. Can Someone Do My Essay How To Apply? For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for buy research papers online paper zola quotations.

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