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Institute for Writing and on finance management Rhetoric. One of the and Christianity services first things you'll discover as a college student is thesis on finance, that writing in college is different from writing in high school. Certainly a lot of what your high school writing teachers taught you will be useful to you as you approach writing in college: you will want to online zip code cleveland, write clearly, to have an interesting and arguable thesis, to construct paragraphs that are coherent and focused, and management so on. Still, many students enter college relying on essay application person, writing strategies that served them well in thesis management, high school but that won't serve them well here. Old formulae, such as the cheap my essay period five-paragraph theme, aren't sophisticated or flexible enough to provide a sound structure for a college paper. And many of the old tricks - such as using elevated language or repeating yourself so that you might meet a ten-page requirement - will fail you now. So how does a student make a successful transition from high school to college? The first thing that you'll need to understand is thesis management, that writing in help zip code cleveland, college is for the most part a particular kind of writing, called academic writing. Thesis Management. While academic writing might be defined in many ways, there are three concepts that you need to essay for college influential person, understand before you write your first academic paper. 1. Academic writing is writing done by scholars for on finance management other scholars.
Writing done by cheap, scholars for management scholars? Doesn't that leave you out? Actually, it doesn't. Now that you are in college you are part of for college influential, a community of scholars. As a college student, you will be engaged in on finance management, activities that scholars have been engaged in for centuries: you will read about, think about, argue about, and write write about great ideas. Of course, being a scholar requires that you read, think, argue, and write in certain ways.
Your education will help you to understand the expectations, conventions, and on finance requirements of scholarship. If you read on, so will this Web site. 2. Academic writing is essay of wealth, devoted to topics and questions that are of interest to on finance management, the academic community. When you write an academic paper, you must first try to find a topic or a question that is relevant and appropriate - not only to short application person, you, but to the academic community of which you are now a part. But how do you know when a topic is on finance, relevant and appropriate to this community? First of all, pay attention to homework online, what your professor is saying. She will certainly be giving you a context into which you can place your questions and observations. Second, understand that your paper should be of interest to thesis on finance, other students and scholars.
Remember that academic writing must be more than personal response. You must write something that your readers will find useful. In other words, you will want to short influential person, write something that helps your reader to better understand your topic, or to see it in a new way. 3. This brings us to our final point: Academic writing should present the reader with an on finance management informed argument. Write My Essay The Causes Of Flood. To construct an thesis on finance informed argument, you must first try to sort out what you know about a subject from what you think about a subject.
Or, to put it another way, you will want to consider what is cheap my essay imperial period, known about a subject and then to determine what you think about it. If your paper fails to thesis on finance management, inform, or if it fails to cant essay, argue, then it will fail to thesis management, meet the expectations of the academic reader. Constructing An Informed Argument. When you sit down to write an academic paper, you'll first want to consider what you know about short for college application person, your topic. Different writing assignments require different degrees of knowing. A short paper written in response to a viewing of thesis management, Alfred Hitchcock's Rear Window, for example, may not require you to be familiar with Hitchcock's other works. It may not even require you to have mastered the help zip code terms important to film criticism - though clearly any knowledge you bring to the film might help you to thesis, make a thoughtful response to it. However, if you are asked to write an academic paper on the film, then you will want to know more. You will want to have certain terms in hand so that you can explain what Hitchcock is doing in key moments.
You will want to be familiar with Hitchcock's other films so that you can understand what themes are important to him and help cant do my redistibution of wealth his work. Moreover, if you are watching this film in an upper-level film class, you will want to be aware of different critical perspectives on Hitchcock's films and on films in general, so that you can place your argument within the larger ongoing conversation. When you sit down to write an academic paper, ask yourself these questions: Can I answer the questions who, what, when, where, why, how? What do I know about the context of my topic? What historical or cultural influences do I know about that might be important to thesis, my topic? Does my topic belong to any particular genre or category of topics? What do I know about this genre? What seems important to me about this topic? If I were to summarize what I know about this topic, what points would I focus on? What points seem less important?
Why do I think so? How does this topic relate to other things that I know? What do I know about the topic that might help my reader to understand it in new ways? What do I need to know? How can I find out more? You'll discover as you consider the questions listed above that you are moving beyond what you know about my essay imperial period, a topic and are beginning to consider what you think. In the process of on finance, really thinking about your topic, your aim is to come up with a fresh observation. After all, it's not enough to summarize in a paper what is write my essay, already known and talked about. You must also add something of your own to the conversation. Understand, however, that adding something of your own is not an invitation simply to bring your own personal associations, reactions, or experiences to the reading of management, a text.
To create an informed argument, you must first recognize that your writing should be analytical rather than personal. In other words, your writing must show that your associations, reactions, and experiences of a text have been framed in a critical, rather than a personal, way. How does one move from cheap the causes personal response to analytical writing? First, summarize what the primary text is saying. You'll notice that you can construct several different summaries, depending on your agenda. Returning to the example of Hitchcock's film, you might make a plot summary, a summary of its themes, a summary of its editing, and so on. You can also summarize what you know about the film in context. In other words, you might write a summary of the difficulties Hitchcock experienced in the film's production, or you might write a summary of thesis management, how this particular movie complements or challenges other films in the Hitchcock canon. You can also summarize what others have said about the film. Film critics have written much about Hitchcock, his films, and their genre.
Try to summarize all that you know. The process of evaluation is an ongoing one. You evaluate a text the moment you encounter it, and you continue to evaluate and to re-evaluate as you go along. Evaluating a text is different from simply reacting to a text. When you evaluate for an academic purpose, it is important to be able to clearly articulate and to support your own personal response. Hinduism. What in the text is leading you to thesis, respond a certain way? What's not in the text that might be contributing to your response? Watching Hitchcock's film, you are likely to have found yourself feeling anxious, caught up in the film's suspense. What in the film is making you feel this way? The editing?
The acting? Can you point to by choice,, a moment in the film that is particularly successful in thesis on finance management, creating suspense? In asking these questions, you are straddling two intellectual processes: experiencing your own personal response, and analyzing the text. Constructing an cheap informed argument asks you first to analyze - that is, to consider the parts of your topic and then to examine how these parts relate to each other or to the whole. Thesis Management. To analyze Hitchcock's film, you may want to break the film down by examining particular scenes, point of view, camera movements, and so on. In short, you'll want to ask: What are the great by choice, components of Hitchcock's film, and how do these components contribute to thesis, the film's theme? How do they contribute to Hitchcock's work as a whole? When you analyze, you break the whole into parts so that you might see the whole differently. The Causes. In the on finance management process of analysis, you find things that you might say. When you analyze, you break down a text into its parts. When you synthesize, you look for connections between ideas.
Consider once again the and Christianity essay services Hitchcock film. In analyzing this film, you might come up with elements that seem initially disparate. You may have some observations that at first don't seem to gel. On Finance Management. Or you may have read various critical perspectives on the film, all of them in disagreement with one another. Homework Help Online Cleveland. Now would be the time to consider whether these disparate elements or observations might be reconciled, or synthesized. This intellectual exercise requires that you create an umbrella argument - some larger argument under which several observations and thesis perspectives might stand. Many students writing in write my essay, college have trouble figuring out what constitutes an thesis on finance appropriate topic. Sometimes the professor will provide you with a prompt. She will give you a question to explore, or a problem to resolve. Hinduism. When you are given a prompt by your professor, be sure to read it carefully.
Your professor is setting the parameters of the assignment for you. She is telling you what sort of paper will be appropriate. In many cases, however, the professor won't provide you with a prompt. She might not even give you a topic. For example, in a psychology course you might be asked to write a paper on any theory or theories of self. Your professor has given you a subject, but she has not given you a topic. Nor has she told you what the thesis management paper should look like. Help Zip Code. Should it summarize one of the theories of management, self?
Should it compare two or more theories? Should it place these theories into some historical context? Should it take issue with these theories, pointing out their limitations? At this juncture, you have two options: talk to the professor and see what her expectations are, or figure out this matter for yourself. It's always a good idea to talk with the professor. At the very least, you'll want to find out if the buy essay online cheap great professor wants a report or a paper . In other words, is your professor looking for information or argument ? Chances are she'll want you to make an argument. It will be up to management, you to narrow your topic and to make sure that it's appropriately academic. As you think about a topic, ask yourself the following questions:
Have you formed an intellectual question? In other words, have you constructed a question that will require a complex, thoughtful answer? Is the essay services question provocative? Startling? Controversial? Fresh? Will you be able to answer this question adequately in a few pages? Or is the question impossibly broad? If the on finance question seems broad, how might you narrow it? Does your question address both text and short essay for college influential person context? In other words, have you considered the thesis on finance historical and cultural circumstances that influenced this text?
Have you considered what other scholars have said about it? Will your reader care about this question? Or will she say, So what? For more advice on this matter, consult Coming Up With Your Topic elsewhere in this Web site. When writing an academic paper, you must not only consider what you want to homework, say, you must also consider to whom you are saying it. In other words, it's important to determine not only what you think about a topic, but also what your audience is likely to think.
What are your audience's biases? Values? Expectations? Knowledge? To whom are you writing, and for what purpose? When you begin to answer all of these questions, you have started to reckon with what has been called the rhetorical stance. Rhetorical stance refers to the position you take as a writer in terms of the subject and the reader of your paper.
Let's first consider your relationship to your topic. When you write a paper, you take a stand on a topic. You determine whether you are for thesis or against, passionate or cool-headed. You determine whether you are going to view this topic through a particular perspective (feminist, for help zip code cleveland example), or whether you are going to make a more general response. You also determine whether you are going to analyze your topic through the lens of a particular discipline - history, for example. Your stance on the topic depends on the many decisions you have made in thesis on finance management, the reading and thinking processes. In order to make sure that your stance on a topic is appropriately analytical, you might want to ask yourself some questions. Begin by cheap write, asking why you've taken this particular stance. Management. Why did you find some elements of the text more important than others? Does this prioritizing reflect some bias or preconception on help cant do my essay, your part?
If you dismissed part of a text as boring or unimportant, why did you do so? Do you have personal issues or experiences that lead you to thesis on finance, be impatient with certain claims? Is there any part of application influential, your response to thesis, the text that might cause your reader to write, discount your paper as biased or un-critical? If so, you might want to reconsider your position on your topic. Your position on a topic does not by itself determine your rhetorical stance. You must also consider your reader. In the college classroom, the audience is usually the professor or your classmates - although occasionally your professor will instruct you to write for a more particular or more general audience. No matter who your reader is, you will want to consider him carefully before you start to write. What do you know about your reader and his stance towards your topic? What is on finance management, he likely to know about the Hinduism and Christianity services topic? What biases is he likely to thesis on finance, have?
Moreover, what effect do you hope to have on the reader? Is your aim to be controversial? Informative? Entertaining? Will the reader appreciate or resent your intention? Once you have determined who your reader is, you will want to consider how you might best reach him. If, for example, you are an authority on a subject and you are writing to homework help online zip code cleveland, readers who know little or nothing about thesis on finance, it, then you'll want to take an informative stance.
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Declare that to write my essay, the reader. Thesis On Finance. Make ambivalence your clear rhetorical stance. Finally, don't write simply to please your professor. Though some professors find it flattering to discover that all of their students share their positions on a subject, most of cheap write, us are hoping that your argument will engage us by telling us something new about your topic - even if that something new is simply a fresh emphasis on a minor detail. Moreover, it is impossible for you to replicate the ideal paper that exists in your professor's head. When you try, you risk having your analysis compared to thesis, your professor's. Do you really want that to happen? In high school you might have been taught various strategies for structuring your papers. Some of you might have been raised on the five paragraph theme, in which you introduce your topic, come up with three supporting points, and then conclude by repeating what you've already said.
Others of you might have been told that the best structure for a paper is the Hinduism and Christianity essay services hour-glass model, in which you begin with a general statement, make observations that are increasingly specific, and then conclude with a statement that is once again general. When you are writing papers in management, college, you will require structures that will support ideas that are more complex than the help cant ones you considered in high school. Your professors might offer you several models for on finance structuring your paper. They might tell you to order your information chronologically or spatially, depending on whether you are writing a paper for a history class or a course in art history. Or they may provide you with different models for cheap by choice, argument: compare and contrast, cause and effect, and so on. But remember: the thesis structure for your argument will in the end be determined by the content itself. No prefab model exists that will provide adequate structure for the academic argument. (For more detailed advice on various ways to structure your paper, see Writing: Considering Structure and Hinduism and Christianity essay services Organization.) When creating an informed argument, you will want to rely on several organizational strategies, but you will want to management, keep some general advice in mind.
Your introduction should accomplish two things: it should declare your argument, and it should place your argument within the cheap write my essay of flood larger, ongoing conversation about your topic. Often writers will do the latter before they do the former. That is, they will begin by summarizing what other scholars have said about their topic, and then they will declare what they are adding to the conversation. Even when your paper is not a research paper you will be expected to introduce your argument as if into a larger conversation. Place your argument for your reader by naming the text, the author, the issues it raises, and your take on these issues. (For more specific advice on writing a good introduction, see Introductions and Conclusions.) Probably you were taught in high school that every paper must have a declared thesis, and thesis management that this sentence should appear at the end of the introduction.
While this advice is sound, a thesis is and Christianity essay, sometimes implied rather than declared in a text, and thesis on finance it can appear almost anywhere - if the writer is skillful. Whether your thesis appears at write period the end of the introduction or the management end of your paper, it must make an help arguable claim - that is, it should declare something that is interesting and debatable. Because your thesis is arguably the most important sentence in thesis on finance management, your paper, you will want to read more about it in Developing Your Thesis. Because every thesis presents an arguable point, you as a writer are obligated to acknowledge in your paper the other side(s) of an argument. Consider what your opponents might say against your argument. Then determine where and how you want to deal with the buy essay online cheap great opposition. On Finance. Do you want to short, dismiss the opposition in the first paragraph? Do you want to list each opposing argument and rebut them one by thesis on finance management, one?
Your decisions will determine how you structure your paper. Every convincing argument must have support. Your argument's support will be organized in your paper's paragraphs. Cheap Write My Essay The Causes Of Flood. These paragraphs must each declare a point, usually formed as that paragraph's topic sentence, or claim. A topic sentence or claim is like a thesis sentence - except that instead of announcing the argument of the thesis on finance entire paper, it announces the argument of that particular paragraph. Homework Help Online Cleveland. In this way, the topic sentence controls the paper's evidence. Thesis On Finance. The topic sentence is cheap my essay imperial period, more flexible than the thesis in that it can more readily appear in different places within the paragraph.
Most often, however, it appears at on finance or near the beginning. For more information on structuring paragraphs, see Writing: Considering Structure and Organization. Writing a good conclusion is difficult. Help Zip Code. You will want to sum up, but you will want to do more than say what you have already said. You will want to on finance management, leave the reader with something to think about, but you will want to avoid preaching. You might want to point to a new idea or question, but you risk confusing the reader by cheap of flood, introducing something that he finds irrelevant. Writing conclusions is, in part, a matter of finding the proper balance. For more instruction on how to write a good conclusion, see Introductions and Conclusions.
OK: you think you understand what's required of you in an academic paper. You need to be analytical. Critical. You need to create an informed argument. You need to consider your relationship to your topic and to your reader. But what about the matter of finding an appropriate academic tone and style? The tone and style of on finance, academic writing might at first seem intimidating. But they needn't be. Professors want students to write clearly and intelligently on matters that they, the students, care about.
What professors DON'T want is imitation scholarship - that is, exalted gibberish that no one cares about. If the student didn't care to write the causes of flood, write the paper, the professor probably won't care to read it. The tone of an thesis management academic paper, then, must be inviting to the reader, even while it maintains an appropriate academic style. Remember: professors are human beings, capable of boredom, laughter, irritation, and awe. Understand that you are writing to a person who is delighted when you make your point clearly, concisely, and persuasively. Cant Do My Essay Of Wealth. Understand, too, that she is less delighted when you have inflated your prose, pumped up your page count, or tried to impress her by using terms that you didn't take the time to understand. In short, then, good academic writing follows the thesis rules of good writing.
If you'd like to help do my essay redistibution, know more about management, how to improve your academic style, please see Attending to Style, elsewhere in this Web site. But before you do, consider some of the following tips, designed to make the process of writing an academic paper go more smoothly: Rely on Hinduism and Christianity essay, evidence over management, feeling. You may be very passionate about a subject, but that's no excuse to allow rhetoric alone to carry the ball. Even if you have constructed some very pretty phrases to buy essay great by choice,, argue against genetic engineering, they won't mean much to your professor unless you back those pretty phrases with facts. Watch your personal pronouns. Students often wonder if it's OK to thesis, use the pronouns I and help zip code cleveland you in a paper. On Finance Management. In fact, it is write of flood, OK - provided you use them understanding their effect. Thesis On Finance. For example, overusing the I might make the my essay period reader feel that your paper is overly subjective. In fact, when a writer too often invokes himself in the first person, he may be doing so to avoid offering proof: It's my own personal opinion, and I have a right to on finance management, it.
I don't have to defend it. But of buy essay online cheap, course, he does. As to thesis on finance management, using the cant essay redistibution pronoun you: Do you really want to aim a remark directly at the reader? Doing so draws the reader closer to thesis, the text and invites a more subjective (and sometimes more intensely critical) response. If this kind of response is what you want, then by all means employ the you. However, you should also remember that certain academic disciplines (the sciences, for example) would frown on the use of these pronouns. When in doubt, ask. Watch your gendered pronouns.
When you write, you'll want to make sure that you don't do anything to and Christianity, make your readers feel excluded. If you use he and him all the time, you are excluding half of your potential readership. Thesis On Finance. We'll acknowledge that the he/she solution is and Christianity essay services, a bit cumbersome in writing. However, you might solve the problem as we have done in this document: by alternating he and she throughout. Other writers advocate always using she instead of he as a way of management, acknowledging a long-standing exclusion of cheap write my essay, women from texts. Whatever decision you make in the end, be sensitive to its effect on thesis on finance management, your readers. Be aware of discipline-specific differences. Each of the academic disciplines has its own way of constructing knowledge, of organizing that knowledge, of and Christianity essay services, using evidence, and of communicating within the field. These differences, which run very deep, also express themselves in thesis on finance, terms of tone and online great style. If you need more information about discipline-specific issues, talk to your professor.
Read deeply in the discipline with the aim of trying to understand how people working within this discipline are constructing knowledge. And for matters regarding style, citation, and so forth, check out on finance management, a relevant style manual, such as the MLA or APA style sheets. Avoid mechanical errors. No matter what audience you're writing for, you'll want to produce text that is error-free. Homework. Errors in grammar and style slow your reader down. Sometimes they even obscure your meaning.
Always proofread your text before passing it on to your reader. If you find that you are making a lot of errors and thesis management want help with grammar and style, consult a handbook or see Attending to Grammar and Attending to Style elsewhere in this Web site. Essay. You might also contact RWIT for help.
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The Model-View-Controller (MVC) Design Pattern for PHP. Amended 1st September 2017. As of thesis on finance management, 10th April 2006 the software discussed in this article can be downloaded from www.radicore.org. I am no stranger to software development having been a software engineer for over 25 years. I have developed in a variety of 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation languages on a mixture of mainframes, mini- and essay micro-computers (which are now called Personal Computers). I have worked with flat files, indexed files, hierarchical databases, network databases and relational databases. The user interfaces have included punched card, paper tape, teletype, block mode, CHUI, GUI and web. I have written code which has been procedural, model-driven, event-driven, component-based and object oriented.
I have built software using the 1-tier, 2-tier and the 3-Tier architecture. I have created development infrastructures in 3 different languages. My latest achievement is to create an environment for building web applications using PHP that encompasses a mixture of 3-Tier architecture, OOP, and where all HTML output is generated using XML and XSL transformations. This is documented in A Development Infrastructure for PHP. Before teaching myself PHP the thesis on finance management only occasion where I came in contact with the concept of the model-view-controller design pattern was when I joined a team that was replacing a legacy system with a more up-to-date version that had web capabilities. I was recruited because of and Christianity essay services, my experience with the language being used, but I quickly realised that their design was too clumsy and the time taken to develop individual components was far to on finance management, long (would you believe two man-weeks for cheap write my essay period a SEARCH screen and on finance management a LIST screen?). They kept arguing that there was nothing wrong with their design as it obeyed all the short for college rules (or should I say 'their interpretation of the rules'). I was not the management only one who thought their implementation was grossly inefficient - the client did not like their projected timescales and costs so he cancelled the whole project. Essay For College Application Influential Person? How's that for a vote of confidence for their design! When I started to build web applications using PHP I wanted to adapt some of the designs which I had used in the past. Having successfully implemented the 3-Tier architecture in my previous language I wanted to attempt the same thing using PHP.
My development infrastructure ended up with the following sets of components: Presentation layer - a set of component scripts, screen structure scripts, and a series of reusable XSL stylesheets and controller scripts. Thesis On Finance? Business layer - this contains a separate class for online cleveland each business entity. As each business entity also has a database table, and as the code to thesis management, communicate with a database table is virtually the same regardless of the zip code cleveland business entity, I put all the sharable code into thesis, an abstract class and defined each business entity as a subclass. This enables me to buy essay online by choice,, share all the standard properties and methods of the superclass through inheritance.
This I have documented in Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and thesis on finance management Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 2). Data Access layer - a single component which contains all the DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements for a particular RDBMS engine. If I wish to switch from one RDBMS to another all I have to do is replace this single component. Although I have never been trained in OO techniques I read up on the theory and used the OO capabilities of PHP 4 to produce a simple class hierarchy that had as much reusable code as possible in an abstract superclass and where each business entity was catered for with a concrete subclass. I published an article Using PHP Objects to access your Database Tables (Part 1) and (Part 2) which described what I had done, and write my essay imperial period I was immediately attacked by self-styled OO purists who described my approach as totally wrong and unacceptable to REAL object-oriented programmers. I put the question to the PHP newsgroup and asked the opinion of the greater PHP community.
This generated a huge response that seemed to thesis on finance management, be split between the it is bad and it is help cant do my essay of wealth, good camps, so I summarised all the criticisms, and my responses to on finance management, those criticisms, in a follow-up article entitled What is/is not considered to be good OO programming. I have absolutely no doubt that there will be some self-styled MVC purists out there in Internet land who will heavily criticise the write my essay of flood contents of this document, but let me give you my response in management advance: I have read the principles of MVC and built software which follows those principles, just as I read the principles of and Christianity, OOP and management built software which followed those principles. The fact that my implementation is different from buy essay great, your implementation is totally irrelevant - it works therefore it cannot be wrong. I have seen implementations of several design patterns which were technical disasters, and I have seen other implementations (mostly my own) of the same design patterns which were technical successes. Following a set of principles will not guarantee success, it is how you implement those principles that separates the men from the boys.
The principles of the thesis various design patterns are high-level ideas which are language-independent, therefore they need to be translated into workable code for each individual language. This is where I have succeeded and homework online zip code others have failed. I have spent the last 25+ years designing and writing code which works, and I don't waste my time with ideas that don't work. Other people seem to think that following a set of rules with blind obedience is the prime consideration and have no idea about writing usable or even efficient code. When someone dares to criticise their work they chant it cannot be wrong because it follows all the rules. The difference between successful and unsuccessful software is not in the underlying rules or principles, it is how those rules or principles are implemented that counts. Where implementation 'A' makes it is easier and quicker to develop components than implementation 'B', it does not mean that 'A' is right and 'B' is wrong, it just means that 'A' is better than 'B'. Where an thesis on finance, implementation works it cannot be wrong - it can only help essay be wrong when it does not work. The Principles of the MVC Design Pattern. After researching various articles on the internet I came up with the following descriptions of the thesis management principles of the Model-View-Controller design pattern: The MVC paradigm is write the causes, a way of breaking an application, or even just a piece of an thesis on finance management, application's interface, into three parts: the model, the view, and the controller.
MVC was originally developed to help cant essay of wealth, map the traditional input, processing, output roles into the GUI realm: Input -- Processing -- Output. Controller -- Model -- View. A model is an thesis, object representing data or even activity, e.g. a database table or even some plant-floor production-machine process. Write My Essay The Causes Of Flood? The model manages the behavior and data of the application domain, responds to requests for information about its state and responds to on finance, instructions to change state. The model represents enterprise data and the business rules that govern access to and updates of this data.
Often the model serves as a software approximation to a real-world process, so simple real-world modeling techniques apply when defining the model. The model is the piece that represents the state and low-level behavior of the component. It manages the short essay for college application state and conducts all transformations on that state. On Finance? The model has no specific knowledge of either its controllers or its views. The view is the homework help zip code cleveland piece that manages the on finance visual display of the state represented by the model. Buy Essay Great? A model can have more than one view. Note that the thesis management model may not necessarily have a persistent data store (database), but if it does it may access it through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). A view is some form of visualisation of the state of the model. The view manages the graphical and/or textual output to the portion of the cheap my essay of flood bitmapped display that is allocated to its application. Thesis? Instead of essay for college application influential person, a bitmapped display the thesis on finance management view may generate HTML, PDF, CSV or XML output.
The view renders the contents of a model. It accesses enterprise data through the model and specifies how that data should be presented. The view is responsible for essay redistibution mapping graphics onto a device. A view typically has a one to one correspondence with a display surface and knows how to render to it. A view attaches to a model and renders its contents to on finance management, the display surface. A controller offers facilities to help online zip code, change the state of the model.
The controller interprets the on finance mouse and keyboard inputs from the user, commanding the model and/or the view to online cheap great, change as appropriate. Thesis On Finance? A controller is the means by which the user interacts with the application. And Christianity Essay? A controller accepts input from the user and instructs the thesis on finance management model and view to cant do my, perform actions based on that input. In effect, the controller is responsible for mapping end-user action to application response. The controller translates interactions with the view into actions to be performed by the model. In a stand-alone GUI client, user interactions could be button clicks or menu selections, whereas in a Web application they appear as HTTP GET and thesis on finance POST requests. The actions performed by the model include activating business processes or changing the state of the model.
Based on the user interactions and the outcome of the model actions, the help zip code controller responds by selecting an appropriate view. The controller is the piece that manages user interaction with the model. It provides the mechanism by which changes are made to the state of the model. In the thesis Java language the MVC Design Pattern is described as having the following components: An application model with its data representation and business logic. Views that provide data presentation and user input. A controller to write my essay, dispatch requests and control flow. The purpose of the thesis on finance management MVC pattern is to separate the and Christianity essay services model from the view so that changes to the view can be implemented, or even additional views created, without having to refactor the model. The model, view and controller are intimately related and in constant contact, therefore they must reference each other.
The picture below illustrates the basic Model-View-Controller relationship: Figure 1 - The basic MVC relationship. Even though the above diagram is incredibly simple, there are some people who try to read more into thesis management, it than is really there, and they attempt to enforce their interpretations as rules which define what is proper MVC. To put it as simply as possible the MVC pattern requires the following: It must have a minimum of three components, each of which performs the cant do my redistibution of wealth responsibilities of either the Model, the View or the thesis on finance management Controller, as identified above. You may include as many additional components as you like, such as a Data Access Object (DAO) to communicate with a relational database. There is a flow of data between each of those components so that each may carry out its designated responsibilities on and Christianity services, that data. What is not specified in thesis on finance management MVC is how the mechanics of that flow are to be implemented.
The data may be pushed by the Model into the View, it may be pulled by the View from the Model, or pulled into an intermediary (such as the Controller or an Observer) before it is pushed into the View. Hinduism And Christianity Essay? It does not matter how the data flows, just that it does flow. The actual mechanics are an implementation detail and can therefore be left to the implementor. The MVC pattern does not identify from where each of these components is instantiated and called. Is there a mystical 4th component which oversees the 3 others, or can one of them oversee and direct the other two? As this is not directly specified in MVC the thesis actual mechanics can be treated as a separate implementation detail. Note the following: HTML or PDF output can only be generated and output in one place - the cheap my essay period View. Thesis On Finance? Data validation and business rules can only be applied in one place - the Model. SQL statements can only be generated and executed in one place - either within the Model (not good) or via a separate Data Access Object (DAO) which is my preferred method.
There are some people who criticise my interpretation of the rules of MVC as it is different from theirs, and therefore wrong (such as how data moves from the online Model to the View), but who is to say that their interpretation is the thesis on finance only one that should be allowed to exist? In my opinion a design pattern merely identifies what needs to be done without dictating how it should be done. And Christianity Essay? Provided that the what is not violated any implementation should be a valid implementation. I do not develop software which directly manipulates real-world objects, such as process control, robotics, avionics, or missile guidance systems, which means that a lot of the properties and methods which apply to real-world objects are completely irrelevant. I develop enterprise applications such as Sales Order Processing, Inventory, Invoicing and Shipments which deal with such entities as Products, Customers and thesis on finance Orders, so I am only cant of wealth manipulating the on finance management information about those entities and not the actual entities themselves. This information is of wealth, held in a database in the form of tables, columns and relationships. Regardless of what properties or attributes a real-world object may have, in thesis a database application it is cheap write my essay, only necessary to store those pieces of information that are actually required by that application. Thesis? A product in the real world may have many properties, but the application may only short essay for college application influential person need to record its Id, Description and Price. A person in the real world may have such methods as sit, stand, walk and run, but these operations would never be needed in an enterprise application. Regardless of the operations that can be performed on a real-world object, with a database table the on finance management only operations that can be performed are Create, Read, Update and Delete (CRUD). Following the process called data normalisation the cheap write my essay imperial period information for an entity may need to on finance, be split across several tables, each with its own columns and relationships, and in these circumstances I would create a separate Model class for each table instead of buy essay online great by choice,, having a single class for thesis on finance management a collection of short essay for college person, tables.
As an application is divided into a number of user transactions or use cases, it would be wise to have a separate controller for on finance each use case instead of a single universal controller which can deal with all possible use cases. Short For College Application? Some people advocate the creation of a separate controller for each use case, such as in GRASP - The Controller which states the following: A use case controller should be used to deal with all system events of a use case, and on finance management may be used for more than one use case (for instance, for use cases Create User and Delete User, one can have a single UserController, instead of two separate use case controllers). I do not have a separate Controller, or a group of controllers, for online cheap each business entity. Each user transaction (use case) does something with a database table, so I have placed the something into a resuable controller script, then use a component script to identify which table (model) should be the subject of that action. Because each business entity is a database table, and each database table has exactly the same operations, I have designed my controllers around the operations that can be performed on an unspecified database table where the name of that table is not known until run time. So instead of such controllers as Create User and Delete User , Create Product and Delete Product , Create Order and Delete Order I simply have Create Table and on finance management Delete Table . These controllers can be used with any table in short person any database, and because they have been reduced to this level of simplification they can be supplied as standard framework components and thesis on finance management do not need to be created or modified by any developer. There is cheap write my essay the causes, a separate controller for each of my Transaction Patterns. In my implementation, as shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, the whole application is broken down into a series of top-level components which are sometimes referred to as tasks, actions, functions, operations or transactions (that's user transactions, not database transactions), each of which is may be related to a Use Case. Each transaction component references a single controller, one or more models, and thesis on finance usually a view.
Some components do not have a view as they are called from other components in order to perform a service, and once this service has been completed they return control to the calling component. Each component is self-executing in that it deals with both the HTTP GET and homework help cleveland POST requests. Figure 2 - My implementation of the MVC pattern (1) The Model is implemented as a series of business entity classes each of which contains all the properties and methods required by a single business entity. It is actually a subclass to an abstract superclass which contains properties and methods which are common to all database tables. The model is responsible for all data validation, business rules and task-specific behaviour, while the actual generation of management, DML (Data Manipulation Language) statements is performed in a separate DML class. The DML class or Data Access Object (DAO) is the only object in the entire framework which is online great, allowed to communicate with the on finance database, and it can only be called by a model component.
This isolates the model from the underlying database and allows the Hinduism essay application to be switched from one RDBMS to another simply by management switching to another DML class. Only the DML class deals with database resources - all communication with the entity subclass is by cheap imperial standard database-agnostic arrays. The View is implemented as a series of screen structure scripts which are combined with the output from each database table class to produce an XML document. This file will also include the data for the menu bar, navigation bar, action bar, pagination and scrolling areas. The completed XML document is then transformed into HTML output by using one of the generic XSL stylesheets. For each database table there is typically a list view (containing multiple occurrences with data arranged horizontally) and a detail view (containing a single occurrence with data arranged vertically). If output in an alternative format is required, such as PDF instead of HTML, there are separate transaction patterns which use a different view object to create PDF output in either LIST view or DETAIL view, each with its own report structure file. There is also another view object to create CSV output. Note that my implementation of MVC differs from the Java implementation in thesis management the following ways: Controllers do not select which View to use. Each of my page controllers is tied to cheap my essay the causes, a single view as described in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications.
There is, in effect, a separate Transaction Pattern for each type of use case. The Model does not send updates to the View . When the Model has finished the actions requested by the Controller , the on finance Controller will instantiate its one and only View , inject the Hinduism and Christianity Model(s) into the View, and the View will then extract all data from the Model(s) and render it in the desired format. There are separate Views for HTML, CSV and PDF output. All HTML output is generated from a collection of reusable XSL stylesheets. The View does not send user gestures to the Controller . Communication is always one way from the on finance Controller to the View , never from the influential View to the Controller . Management? With web applications there are only two possible actions - GET and POST - and these are received by the Controller which then calls the buy essay by choice, appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) followed by a single call to thesis, the View . Also note that, unlike the Java implementation, I do not use any of the following design patterns - Filter, Helper, Composite, Front Controller, Value Object, Facade or Delegate. I do, however, use a Data Access Object (DAO), but only because it is component in the 3-Tier Architecture. Figure 3 - My implementation of the online great by choice, MVC pattern (2) Note that all the management items in the above diagram are clickable links. As I said in the introduction, my implementation of MVC is combined with the 3-Tier Architecture which has separate layers for write imperial period Presentation logic, Business logic and Data Access logic. How the on finance management two can interact is shown in online great by choice, Figure 3a: Figure 3a - The MVC and 3-Tier architectures combined.
This implementation has very high Levels of Reusability due to the number of components which are either pre-written and thesis on finance come supplied with the framework, or are generated by the framework. This component is cant essay redistibution, comprised of the following: A separate and management unique Component script for each user transaction. Each of these is generated from the Data Dictionary. A sharable Controller script which is supplied in the framework in the catalog of Transaction Patterns. The Model is short application, never supposed to thesis, handle the output of online by choice,, its data to any particular device or medium. Instead it is supposed to transfer its data to another object which deals with that device or medium. In this implementation I have separate objects to thesis on finance, create output in essay application influential person either HTML, PDF or CSV format. The HTML component operates as follows: It is given a Screen Structure file which is generated from the Data Dictionary initially, but which may be modified as required. This identifies which XSL stylesheet to use, and on finance management which data columns need to be displayed where.
After the Model(s) have finished executing they are injected into the View which will extract all the data and copy it to an XML document. Hinduism Essay Services? Information from the screen structure file is also copied into thesis, the XML document so that the help cant of wealth XSL stylesheet will know which data elements to put where. The View will then copy in data supplied by the framework, such as menu buttons, screen title, navigation buttons, action buttons, pagination and scrolling details, and any messages. Thesis Management? The View will then perform an XSL Transformation using the nominated XSL stylesheet and the newly constructed XML document to produce an Hinduism services, HTML document. The HTML output is then sent back to the requesting client device. The PDF component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the Model and instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the PDF object and injects into it the MOdel and the name of the report structure file. The PDF object instructs the Model to fetch a record which it will format into a page for the DETAIL view or a line in the LIST view. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is on finance management, no more data.
The CSV component operates as follows: The Controller instantiates the and Christianity services Model and thesis management instructs it to issue its SQL select statement, but without actually retrieving any data. The Controller instantiates the CSV object injects the Model into it. The CSV object instructs the Model to fetch the first record so that it can construct a line of column labels. Imperial? The CSV object will then write the current record's data to the output, then read the next record. The read-a-record-process-a-record cycle will continue until there is no more data. Note that some components may not have a view at all as they perform a service without producing any visible output. This component is comprised of the following: A separate Business Entity class for each table within the application database. Each of these is generated by exporting the table's details from the thesis on finance Data Dictionary to produce a class file and a structure file. The structure file provides information which is cheap write my essay of flood, used by my standard validation object to validate user input.
This file can be regenerated whenever the table's structure changes. On Finance Management? Each of these concrete table classes inherits its standard methods and properties from a single Abstract Table class which is Hinduism, supplied as part of the framework. This ensures that all the common code is defined in on finance management one place but can be shared by many objects. Each table class contains its own specific business rules and data validation rules, but all communication with the Hinduism physical database is routed through a separate Data Access Object (DAO). There is a separate DML class for each DBMS engine which is supplied as part of the framework. This arrangement makes it possible to switch from one DBMS to thesis management, another without having to make any changes to any table class. Currently supported DBMS engines are MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and SQL Server.
My implementation also has the following characteristics: Each of the components can be classified as one of the following: Some of these components are built into homework help, the framework while others you have to generate yourself: The framework components are pre-written and thesis on finance come supplied with the framework or are invoked automatically. The application components are generated by the framework using information obtained from your application database. The Data Dictionary is used to generate the business entity classes as well as the component scripts, screen structure files and report structure files. Components are either application-agnostic or framework-agnostic:
The framework components are application-agnostic as they have no knowledge of the internals of any application component. A framework component may send data to or receive data from an application component, but that data has no meaning to the framework. Online Great? The application components are framework-agnostic as they have no knowledge of where the data comes from thesis, that they receive, or what happens to application person, the data that they send out. All communication between the various components is as follows: Each Controller and View communicates with the thesis on finance Model using methods which are defined within the homework help abstract class. Each Model communicates with the DAO using methods which are defined within the abstract class. All default behaviour is provided by thesis the framework components, so when a developer wishes to alter the help cant essay redistibution default behaviour the only code that he/she has to write goes into one of the pre-prepared methods in a Model class.
This also means that, as the author of the framework, I can alter or enhance the thesis on finance default behaviour of any component within the application simply by my essay the causes of flood changing a framework component. In other frameworks where the thesis on finance management supplied components are more primitive and require much more developer effort such widespread enhancements are simply not possible. Every application component (user transaction) will have one of these scripts. This will be identified in Hinduism essay services the URL so it can be activated without the need to pass through a Front Controller. It is thesis management, a very small script which does nothing but identify which model (business entity), view (screen structure file) and controller to use, as shown in great by choice, the following example: Where the thesis management controller requires access to more than one business entity, such as in a parent-child or one-to-many relationship in a LIST2 pattern, or a parent-child-grandchild relationship in a LIST3 pattern, then names such as $parent_id , $child_id , $outer_id or $inner_id are used. The same screen structure file can used by cant do my redistibution components which access the same business entity but in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and on finance search) as the great XSL stylesheet is provided with a $mode parameter which enables it to determine whether fields should be read-only or amendable. Note that no component script is allowed to access more than one view. While most will produce HTML output using the specifications in a screen structure file there are some which produce PDF output using a report structure file. Some components may have no view at all - they are called upon to take some particular action after which they return control to the calling component which refreshes its own view accordingly.
Each of these is generated from a component in thesis management the Data Dictionary. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. There is a separate pre-built controller script included in buy essay online the framework for each of the patterns identified in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. By simply changing the name of the controller script the whole character of the component will change. These component controllers may also be known as transaction controllers or page controllers. The following is an management, example of controller std.update1.inc : The controller does not know the names of the business entities with which it is dealing - these are passed down as variables from the component script. Cheap Great By Choice,? It will append the standard '.class.inc' to each table name to identify the class file, then instantiate a separate object for each table. Note that I did say entities in the plural and not entity in management the singular.
There is no rule (at least none which I recognise) which says that a controller can only communicate with a single model, which is why I have transaction patterns which sometimes use two or even three models at a time. Just because some example implementations show a single model does not mean that all implementations must also be restricted to a single model. The method names that the controller uses to communicate with each table object are the cheap write of flood generic names which are defined within the abstract table class. This means that any controller can be used with any concrete table class. The controller does not know the names of any fields with which it is thesis on finance, dealing - what comes out of the business entity is a simple associative array of 'name=value' pairs which is essay services, passed untouched to the View object which will transfer the entire array to on finance, an XML document so that it can be transformed into HTML. In any INPUT or UPDATE components the entire contents of the my essay imperial period POST array is passed to the business entity as-is instead of one field at thesis on finance a time. Again this means that no field names have to for college influential person, be hard-coded into any controller script, thus increasing their re-usability.
My framework currently has 40+ pre-built controller scripts which are part of my library of Transaction Patterns. On Finance Management? The same pattern can be used with virtually any business object in the application, thus making them loosely coupled and highly reusable. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This encapsulates the properties and methods which can be used by any database table in the application. When a concrete table class is created it makes use of these sharable properties and methods by the mechanism known as inheritance. The generic methods which are used by the Controller script when it calls a Business entity object are all defined with this abstract class, and as they are all then available to online cheap by choice,, every concrete table class this enables the concept known as polymorphism. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is responsible for all communication the database by constructing queries using the standard SQL Data Manipulation Language (DML) using instructions passed down from the management calling Business Entity class.
There is a separate DML class for each different DBMS engine, such as MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle and SQL Server, which means that the entire application can be switched from one DBMS to another simply by changing a single entry in the configuration file. This means that it is also possible to develop an application using one DBMS engine but deploy it to use another. Note that this class does not have any inbuilt knowledge of cheap write my essay imperial period, any database or database table, so a single class can be used to access any table in any database. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. Each business entity is implemented as a separate class so that it can encapsulate all the properties and methods of management, that entity in help a single object. As each of thesis management, these business entities also exists as a database table a great deal of common code can be shared by inheriting from the abstract table class. In its initial form a concrete table class requires very little information to differentiate it from help essay redistibution, another database table - just the database name, the on finance table name, and the table structure. Online Zip Code? Rather than having to create each class file manually, as of thesis on finance, June 2005 these can be generated for you as described in A Data Dictionary for PHP Applications. This provides the following facilities: IMPORT - Populate the dictionary database using details extracted from the cheap period physical database schema.
EDIT - Modify the details for use by the application. EXPORT - Make the details available to thesis on finance management, the application in essay the form of management, disk files which can be referenced by means of the include() function. Two files will be created for each database table: tablename.class.inc - this is the initial class file for the database table. It will only be created if it does not already exist, so any customisations which have been added since the initial creation of the file will not be lost. tablename.dict.inc - this contains the column details, key details and relationship details. This will be overwritten during the export process, so no customisations are allowed. All customisation should be performed in the dictionary and then exported to this file. Hinduism And Christianity Essay Services? Alternatively it is possible to make temporary customisations at runtime by placing code in management the _cm_changeConfig method of the relevant table subclass. The variables in the class constructor do not contain application data (that which passes through the object between the user and great by choice, the database) but instead contain information about the application data. Collectively they are sometimes referred to as meta-data , or data-about-data . This meta-data contains declarative rules rather than imperative rules as they are defined here but executed somewhere else. When the time comes (i.e. when the user presses a SUBMIT button on an HTML form) the user data passes from the Controller into thesis on finance management, the Model where it is passed to for college application influential person, a validation object along with the meta-data, and it is the responsibility of the validation object to ensure that the user data conforms to thesis, those rules. The validation object returns an $errors array which will contain zero or more error messages.
If there are any error messages then the operation is aborted. The structure file is a simple PHP script which identifies the XSL stylesheet which is to my essay period, be used and the application data which is to be displayed by thesis that stylesheet. Essay Services? It does this by constructing a multi-dimensional array in on finance management the $structure variable. Cheap My Essay The Causes Of Flood? The following formats are available: Each structure file has the following components: The following keywords for column attributes are supported in the list/horizontal view: Note that the 'align', 'valign' and on finance 'class' attributes when added to a COL element in the HTML output are poorly supported in cheap my essay imperial most browsers, so will be dealt with as follows:
The 'align' and 'valign' attributes will be converted to 'class' when written to the XML output. The 'class' attribute will no longer be added to the COL element, but instead will be added to the TD element for thesis management every cell within the relevant column. NOTE: if your screen structure file contains two or more of the 'align|valign|class' attributes for the same field then they will be combined automatically into a single 'class' value, so code such as: will be treated as if it were: The following keywords for additional field attributes are supported in the detail/vertical view:
This behaviour can be overridden by adding 'display-empty' = 'y' to short essay for college person, the item in the ['zone']['fields'] array in the screen structure file. This will cause every cell in that row to on finance management, be output, even if it is empty. When this information is written out to the XML document it will look something like the following: Screen Structure file for a more complex multi-column DETAIL view (vertical) Here is an example of a screen structure file that will produce a multi-column DETAIL view as shown in cant do my redistibution Figure 5: Notice the following differences between this and the standard 2-column view: Each row is numbered explicitly so that multiple entries can be specified for thesis on finance management rows 2 and 13. Rows which contain a single label and field (rows 1, 4 and 11 in this example) can be expressed as 'field' = 'label' A row can contain nothing but a label to homework online zip code cleveland, act as a heading or sub-heading.
Rows which require more than one field require a separate entry for each label and each field. Please note the thesis on finance management following: If a field has a label then the label entry must be defined before the Hinduism essay field entry. It is possible to have a field without a label . It is not possible to have a label without a field unless you specify the label-only option. Each entry may include any of the following options: colspan - will allow that field to span more than one column in the HTML table. Without it the remaining columns in that row would be blank. rowspan - similar to colspan , but allows the management field to do my, extend vertically for thesis more than 1 row. cols - will override the value for multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. rows - will override the cheap my essay imperial period value for multiline controls supplied in the $fieldspec array. align - specify horizontal alignment within this cell. See the HTML specification for details. valign - specify vertical alignment within this cell.
Options which are added to the ['zone']['fields'] array will appear in the td element of the HTML document. When this information is written out to help online zip code cleveland, the XML document it will look something like the following: Although the thesis on finance contents of the screen structure file is fixed it is possible to make temporary amendments before it is used to build the HTML output. Please refer to the following: There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. After the business entity has finished its processing the controller will instruct the view component to produce the HTML output. Cheap Write My Essay? It does this by putting all the relevant data into an XML document. This data comes from the following sources: The screen structure file in order to identify what application data goes where on the screen. This will appear in the structure element of the XML document. Application data from each of the management business objects (there may be more than one!) which were specified in the component script.
This data will appear in the data area of the HTML output. This area is broken down into one or more zones (e.g. 'main', or 'outer' and 'inner', or 'outer', 'middle' and essay of wealth 'inner'), and each object's data is allocated to one of those zones. Framework data from either the database or session data, such as: The menu buttons. The navigation buttons. The title bar. The column headings for LIST screens. The action buttons. Thesis On Finance Management? The message area for errors and warnings. The pagination and scrolling areas.
This document will then be transformed into HTML. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is a standard process by which an XML document is transformed into HTML output using instructions contained within an XSL Stylesheet. This process is performed at the web server end by default, but it is also possible for it to be performed within the client browser, thus reducing the load on the server. There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. This is the Hinduism and Christianity essay document which is sent back to the client's browser is response to the request. Its content should conform to the (X)HTML specification which is supervised by the World Wide Web Consortium.
There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide. The framework contains a series of reusable XSL stylesheets each of which will present the data in one of the management structures described in Transaction Patterns for Web Applications. These stylesheets are reusable because of one simple fact - none of them contain any hard-coded table or field names. Precise details of which elements from the XML file are to my essay the causes, be displayed where are provided within the thesis XML file itself from data obtained from a screen structure script which is placed into the structure element. This is a great improvement over my original software which required a separate version of a stylesheet for each component. There are two basic structures for services displaying data, and while some stylesheets use one or the other there are some which contain the on finance same basic elements in buy essay online different variations and combinations. DETAIL view, single row displayed vertically LIST view, multiple rows displays horizontally. XSL Stylesheet for a DETAIL view (vertical) This is a DETAIL view which displays the contents of a single database row in columns going vertically down the management page with labels on the left and data on the right, as shown in my essay imperial period Figure 4.
In most cases the standard 2-column view will be sufficient, but there may be cases when it is thesis on finance, desired to help redistibution of wealth, have more than one piece of data on the same horizontal line, as shown in Figure 5. It is thesis management, important to note that it is not a simple case of adding in extra columns to a row. An HTML table expects each row to have the same number of columns, so it is cheap write period, necessary to thesis on finance, make adjustments on all other rows otherwise they will contain empty columns. Influential Person? Notice the following points about Figure 5: 'data1' has been told to span 3 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'data2a'. Line 2 contains two labels and two fields. This dictates that each row must therefore contain 4 columns. 'data4b' does not have a label.
This is on finance management, allowed, but it is influential, not possible to have a label without data. 'data4b' has been told to span 2 columns, otherwise it would be no wider than 'label2b'. In an HTML table it is possible to have a single piece of data which spans more than one column, as shown in Figure 5. Thesis On Finance Management? It is also possible to have a single piece of data which spans more than one row, as shown in Figure 6. Notice here that the effect of spanning multiple rows requires data in the other columns in each of the buy essay great by choice, rows that are being spanned. Details on how to achieve these effects are given in Structure file for a DETAIL view. The same DETAIL view can be used by management different components which access the same business entity in different modes (insert, update, enquire, delete and search) as the controller script will pass its particular mode to the XSL stylesheet during the help zip code cleveland transformation process. The XSL stylesheet will use the mode value to alter the way that it deals with individual fields by making them read-only or amendable as appropriate. Here is a sample of the management XSL stylesheet which provides a DETAIL view: Full a full breakdown of the different parts within the XSL stylesheet please refer to Reusable XSL Stylesheets and buy essay online by choice, Templates.
XSL Stylesheet for a LIST view (horizontal) This is a LIST view which displays the contents of on finance management, several database rows in horizontal rows going across the page. The top row contains column headings (labels) while the subsequent rows contain data, each row from a different database occurrence. Here is help do my redistibution, a sample of the XSL stylesheet which provides a LIST view: There are more details available in the RADICORE Infrastructure guide.
Each application component (transaction) within the system will have its own unique component script. Thesis Management? Although this is short essay for college person, not sharable, it is a very small script which does nothing but identify which Model, View and Controller to use, most of which are sharable. This arrangement allows me to achieve the following levels of reusability: There is a separate Model class for each business entity (database table) within the application which encapsulates all the properties and methods necessary for that entity. This class can be shared by any number of components. Every Model class starts off by being very small as the majority of the required code is inherited from an abstract table class. Code to physically access a particular RDBMS is routed through a single DML class. Management? This does not contain any hard-coded table or column names, therefore can be shared by all of the Model classes.
Every transaction which produces HTML output uses the same HTML View component. This uses a screen structure file which is tied to a particular database table but which may be shared by more than one transaction. Cheap? Each transaction follows a particular pattern which uses one of the on finance management pre-defined XSL stylesheets which is supplied within the framework. There are a dozen or so of these XSL stylesheets which can be used by any number of different transactions, and homework help as they do not contain any hard-coded table or column names they can be used with any number of Model classes. Thesis? Every transaction which produces PDF output uses the same PDF View component. Cheap The Causes Of Flood? This uses a report structure file which is thesis on finance management, unique for each report. Every transaction which produces CSV output uses the same CSV View component. This does not have any type of structure file as it will simply write to the output file every record that it is given.
Every transaction requires a Controller which handles the communication with the Model and the View. None of my controller scripts contains any hard-code table names or column names, so they can be used with any Model. Each Controller script will be tied to a particular type of View - HTML, PDF, CSV or no view at all in those cases where no visible output is required - and is catalogued in my library of Transaction Patterns. Using this design I have built framework which contains the following: Each transaction accesses one of the short person pre-defined Controller scripts, one for each of the thesis management 43 Transaction Patterns.
Each table (Model) class is generated from my Data Dictionary and inherits a large volume of code from and Christianity services, a single abstract table class. All SQL queries are constructed and executed through a single Data Access Object. All HTML output is generated by a single HTML object which uses one of the 12 XSL stylesheets. All PDF output is generated by a single PDF object. On Finance? All CSV output is generated by a single CSV object. Using this framework I have built an application which contains over 2,000 user transactions, 250+ database tables and 450+ relationships. Each database table (Model) class was generated from my Data Dictionary and help online zip code automatically shared code from my abstract table class and Data Access Object.
Each user transaction was generated from one of on finance, my Transaction Patterns and automatically shared one of my Controller scripts and help one of thesis management, my View objects. In my implementation I can add a new table to cheap, my database, import the thesis on finance details into buy essay online by choice,, my Data Dictionary, create the management class file for the Model then create the initial transactions for the LIST1, SEARCH1, ADD1, ENQUIRE1, UPDATE1 and short for college application influential person DELETE1 patterns, and be able to run them from my menu system, in under 5 minutes without having to write a single line of code . How much code would you have to write to achieve that in management your implementation? In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each Model in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as the model classes are generated from my Data Dictionary and inherit a large amount of code from my abstract table class. In your implementation how much code do you have to write to validate user input?
In mine it is none as all user input is automatically validated using my standard validation object which compares each field's value with the field's specifications provided by the table structure file. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each View in order to produce a working transaction? In mine it is none as each HTML page is created from a pre-built View object which uses one of my pre-defined XSL stylesheets. In your implementation how much code do you have to write for each Controller in for college order to management, produce a working transaction? In mine it is homework online zip code, none as each transaction uses one of my pre-defined controller scripts. In your implementation how many Controllers are tied to a particular Model and on finance management are therefore not sharable?. In mine I have 43 controllers which can operate on any Model, so they are infinitely sharable. If your implementation cannot achieve the same levels of reusability/sharability as mine then please do not try to tell me that my implementation is inferior.
More information regarding the levels of reusability which I have achieved can be found in the following: In this forum post someone asked advice on how the cheap write my essay period MVC pattern should be implemented, so I decided to offer some based on thesis on finance management, my experience of having successfully implemented the MVC pattern in the causes of flood a large web application. It seems that quite a few people took exception to my approach as it violated their personal interpretations of the rules of MVC. In this post I stated the management following: Should the Model transmit its changes directly into the View, should the View extract the changes directly from the Model, or should the Controller extract from the Model and buy essay online great inject into thesis, the View? Actually, there is no hard and fast rule here, so any of these options would be perfectly valid. Well in MVC the view gets its own data from the model. Controller extracting from the write my essay the causes model and passing to the view is wrong. MVC states that views access the model directly (ie not using the controller as a mediator) and that models should not know of thesis, controllers and views.
He has reinforced this statement in an article entitled Model-View-Confusion part 1: The View gets its own data from the Model. What he fails to buy essay cheap, realise is that different examples of thesis management, MVC implementations show different ways in which the model obtains its data, so he cites the cheap by choice, ones that follow his personal opinion as being right and dismisses all the others as being wrong. I feel that his interpretation of the statement models should not know of controllers and thesis on finance management views goes too far. A model may have any of homework help, its methods called by another object, or may call a method on an object of unknown origin which has been injected into it, but it should not have any hard-coded dependencies on specific view objects or any methods which are tied to specific objects as this would introduce tight coupling between those objects. By using generic methods which can be used by thesis management multiple objects you are introducing loose coupling which makes the the causes of flood code more maintainable and less prone to error. The model will be called from a controller, but it should not need to know which controller so that it may change its response in some way. The model may push its data into a view object which was instantiated and injected into it by the controller, or it could have its data pulled out by a view object. In either case it should not need to know which view or controller requested that data, it should simply return the data and let the thesis calling object do what it wants with it, which may be to render that data it whatever form is appropriate, which could be HTML, PDF, CSV or whatever.
My point of view is reinforced by cheap write my essay period How to on finance management, use Model-View-Controller (MVC) which lists the following in Hinduism the Basic Concepts section: In the MVC paradigm the user input, the modeling of the external world, and the visual feedback to the user are explicitly separated and handled by three types of object, each specialized for thesis on finance its task. The view manages the Hinduism services graphical and/or textual output to the portion of the bitmapped display that is allocated to its application. The controller interprets the mouse and keyboard inputs from the management user, commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate. the model manages the behavior and data of the application domain, responds to requests for short for college influential information about its state (usually from the view), and responds to instructions to change state (usually from the controller) The formal separation of management, these three tasks is an important notion that is particularly suited to Smalltalk-80 where the essay for college basic behavior can be embodied in abstract objects: View, Controller, Model and Object. On Finance Management? The MVC behavior is then inherited, added to, and modified as necessary to provide a flexible and powerful system. Although this document was written with Smalltalk-80 in mind, these basic concepts can be implemented in any language which has the appropriate capabilities. Notice that it concentrates on homework help online cleveland, the responsibilities of the thesis three components, and cheap of flood does nothing but suggest how the data may flow between them. Note the use of the term usually in on finance management the above list, and the phrase commanding the model and/or the view to change as appropriate. Later in essay application person the same document you may find references to particular implementations, but as far as I am concerned these are suggested implementations by virtue of the fact that the words used are can , could and on finance management may . These are not imperatives such as must , should or will , and as such should not be regarded as required in any implementations.
This Wikipedia article contains the following: In addition to dividing the application into three kinds of components, the online cheap MVC design defines the interactions between them. A controller can send commands to its associated view to change the view's presentation of the model (e.g., by scrolling through a document). It can also send commands to the model to update the model's state (e.g., editing a document). A model notifies its associated views and controllers when there has been a change in its state.
This notification allows the thesis on finance views to short for college influential, produce updated output, and thesis on finance management the controllers to change the available set of commands. A passive implementation of MVC omits these notifications, because the application does not require them or the software platform does not support them. Cheap Imperial? A view requests from the on finance management model the information that it needs to generate an short essay, output representation. So even in this definition there are several possibilities: The controller can send commands to both the model and the view . The model can send commands to both the view and the controller . The view can receive commands from both the model and the controller . Note that the word used is thesis on finance management, can and not should or must . Which variation of these options you choose to write my essay imperial period, implement is therefore down to your personal preferences or what options are available in your design. So even though the MVC pattern does not (or should not, IMHO) dictate how the flow of data should be implemented, whether it should be pulled or pushed, or who should do the pulling or the pushing, TomB seems to thesis, think that the only implementations which are allowed are those which have received his personal seal of approval. Isn't this a little arrogant on do my of wealth, his part? By state I meant does the model contain a 'current record set'. Selecting which records to thesis, show is clearly display logic (along with ordering and homework help online limiting). I replied in this post with the following:
I disagree (again). The Model contains whatever records it has been told to contain, either by issuing an thesis on finance, sql SELECT statement, or by having data injected into it from the Controller. Help Cant Essay Redistibution? The View does not *request* any particular records from the Model, it deals with *all* records that are currently contained in thesis management the Model. Ordering and limiting are data variables which are passed from the Controller, through the Model and to influential, the DAO so that they can be built into the sql SELECT statement. The View does *not* decide how to limit or sort the on finance management data - the data which it is given has already been sorted and limited. TomB argued in this post with the following: Ordering, limiting and generally deciding which records to help, show is 100% display logic. By moving this to the model you've reduced reusability of the view. I don't know about you, but if there are 1,000s of records to on finance, display, but the essay for college person user wants to see them in pages of on finance, 10, it is help do my essay redistibution, much more efficient, both in time and memory, for the Model/DAO to use limit and offset values so that only the relevant records are actually read from the database. Thesis On Finance Management? All of these records are then passed to help, the View, and the View displays every record which it has been given.
It just does not sound practical to pass 1,000s of on finance management, records to the View, then get the View to decide which 10 to display. Similarly it is do my essay redistibution, far easier to thesis on finance, sort the records by adding order by to the SQL query than it is to have code to sort them in buy essay cheap the View. This is no way reduces the reusability of the view as all HTML output is produced from a single pre-written View object which uses one of thesis, my pre-written XSL stylesheets. This single object can be used to write, create the HTML output for thesis management any transaction and any Model. What could be more reusable than that? There also seems to essay for college application influential, be some dispute over thesis on finance management, what the term display logic actually means. A software application can be broken down into the following types of logic:
Display logic - code which generates the HTML output that is cheap write, sent to the user. This exists in, and thesis only in, the View. Business logic - code which implements the online cheap great by choice, business rules. This exists in, and only in, the Model, which has a separate class for each entity within the management application domain. Data Access logic - code which constructs and executes SQL queries to read or update data in my essay a database.
This exists in, and only in, the Data Access Object (DAO) which is thesis on finance management, accessed from the Model. Control logic - code which translates user input into operations on the Model and the View. This exists in, and only in, the write of flood Controller. It is clear to me that display logic is thesis management, that code which directly generates the HTML output. The data which is transformed into HTML may come from any source, but the code which obtains or generates that data is not part of the display logic. The Model does not generate any HTML, therefore it does not contain any display logic. Hinduism And Christianity Essay? Similarly the management Model does not generate and execute any SQL queries, therefore it does not contain any data access logic. This can be summed up as follows:
Code which transforms data into Hinduism and Christianity services, HTML is display logic. Code which creates or obtains the thesis data which is subsequently transformed into HTML is short person, not display logic. I'm sorry if my interpretation of these minor details is different to yours, but just because my interpretation is different does not mean that it is wrong. I still have components which carry out the on finance responsibilities of Model, View and Controller, so as far as I am concerned my version of MVC is perfectly valid. My implementation may be different from yours, but it is allowed to and Christianity, be different. According to some people there is supposed to be a rule which says that a Controller can only on finance management ever communicate with a single Model, but as I have never heard of this rule and have never been given any justification for its existence I see no reason to be bound by it. Cheap The Causes? In my implementation each HTML page is broken down into a series of zones or areas, and each zone is populated using the contents of a different object as follows: The menu bar is populated from the MNU_MENU table in the MENU database.
The title bar is populated from the MNU_TASK table in the MENU database. The navigation bar is thesis, populated from the MNU_NAV_BUTTON table in the MENU database. The message area is populated with any messages, plus any field errors which cannot be associated with any field on the screen. The data area will display data from one or more application objects. How this data is displayed depends on how many occurrences (rows) can be shown at any one time: For single rows there will be the following: Application data will be displayed vertically with labels on cant, the left and thesis on finance management field contents on the right. A scrolling area which will allow the user to move backwards or forwards through the help cant redistibution of wealth available rows in on finance the current selection. For multiple rows there will be the following: A row of column headings which are shown as hyperlinks which allow the imperial period current sort sequence to be changed. Application data will be displayed horizontally with each field below its corresponding label. A pagination area which will allow the management user to move backwards or forwards through the available pages in short essay the current selection. The navigation bar will contain hyperlinks to allow the thesis on finance management number of rows per page to be altered.
The action bar is help do my essay, populated from a variable which is defined in the controller script. In all my previous programming languages I was able to populate different areas on management, the screen from different tables in the database, so I saw no reason why I should not do exactly the same with PHP. Each of my page controllers will deal with each of those applications objects independently and separately, regardless of the number, and not through any single composite object. For example, take three database tables which are related as shown in period Figure 9: A typical screen will list multiple rows from the ORDER table in thesis on finance a single zone using the LIST1 pattern as shown in Figure 10. Data from the CUSTOMER table will not need a separate zone as it can be obtained from a JOIN within the online great by choice, ORDER object. Note that each row of ORDER data may show details for on finance management a different CUSTOMER. A variation of this may show only those ORDERs for a single CUSTOMER using the and Christianity essay LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 11. Thesis Management? Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. Of Flood? This is separate from and in addition to the ORDER zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ORDERS which are related to thesis, the current CUSTOMER will be shown.
Another screen may only show those ITEMs for a single ORDER using the LIST2 pattern, as shown in Figure 12. Here the ORDER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is separate from cheap my essay, and in thesis addition to the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER will be shown. Any CUSTOMER data is obtained using a JOIN within the ORDER object. Another screen may only show those ITEMs for a single ORDER for a single CUSTOMER using the LIST3 pattern, as shown in Figure 13. Here the CUSTOMER table has its own zone which displays one row at a time. This is separate from and in addition to the ORDER zone which can also only display one row at a time, and the ITEM zone which can display multiple rows. Only those ITEMs which are related to the current ORDER which are related to the current CUSTOMER will be shown. The idea of forcing the page controller to go through a single composite object in buy essay online cheap by choice, order to deal with the separate database objects never occurred to me. Thesis On Finance? Doing so would require extra effort which would achieve absolutely nothing (except to conform to a rule which I did not know existed) so as a follower of the KISS principle it is my choice, if not my duty, to avoid unnecessary complexity and homework zip code cleveland stick with the simplest thing that could possibly work.
While not a direct criticism of my approach, a blog written by Fabien Potencier (who created the Symfony framework), contains the following statement: I don't like MVC because that's not how the web works. Symfony2 is an HTTP framework ; it is management, a Request/Response framework . In my opinion anyone who says that the MVC design pattern is not suitable for the web has a blinkered mind which is being constrained by the circumstances in which that pattern was created and the way it was first implemented. Help Do My? It was originally designed for and implemented in a language which ran in a stateful environment on the desktop using a bitmapped display, and where it was possible for every keystroke to be detected by the program and to have an immediate effect on the output. Management? Twenty plus years later the internet arrived with a totally different stateless protocol with its HTTP Request/Response cycle in which individual keystrokes are not detected - the client sends a request to the server, the cant essay redistibution sever processes that request and responds with a complete HTML document which causes the thesis whole display to be rebuilt. If you bother to look at write the causes of flood the description of MVC its says nothing about being tied to software which runs in a stateful environment using a bitmapped display where every keystroke can be detected and processed.
MVC is nothing more than a design which identifies three components which each have their own distinct and separate responsibilities. How those responsibilities are carried out is not specified, the design simply identifies what should be done and thesis on finance not how it should be done. MVC is not tied to buy essay online great, a particular language, or a particular protocol, nor is it limited to a particular implementation . That blog also contains the following statement: . Thesis On Finance? because the MVC word is cleveland, so overloaded and because nobody implements exactly the same MVC pattern anyway. The phrase same MVC pattern is totally meaningless as there is only one MVC pattern, but there may be different implementations of that pattern using either different languages or different programming styles. There may be different variations with different names, such as Model-View-Presenter or Model-View-Adapter, but there is thesis on finance management, only one MVC. Provided that your software has three components which fulfil the responsibilities of the Model, View and Controller then you definitely have an implementation of cant essay of wealth, MVC, and anyone who says otherwise is mistaken. I quite deliberately said an implementation of MVC as there is no such thing as the implementation. For example, with PHP applications the thesis on finance View component may use a templating system such as Smarty or one of the many other templating engines. Personally I prefer to use XSL. Some people put data validation in Hinduism and Christianity essay services the Controller, but I prefer to keep it in thesis management the Model with the other business logic.
This means that all knowledge of essay influential, any application is confined to on finance management, the Model/Business layer while both the Presentation and Data Access layers are application-agnostic by help cant redistibution of wealth virtue of the fact they do not contain any knowledge of any application. Controllers, Views and DAOs are supplied with the framework while individual Model classes are generated by the framework using table structures obtained from the application database which is designed and built by thesis management the developer. The idea that MVC is not suitable for the HTTP Request/Response cycle is also nonsense. Buy Essay? Take a look at management Figure 14: Figure 14 - Request/Response cycle with MVC. In my framework this is implemented in write period the following steps: The Controller receives the thesis on finance management HTTP request from the client. The Controller calls the homework help online zip code appropriate method(s) on the Model(s) and waits for it/them to finish. Note that the results contain only data, no HTML. Thesis On Finance Management? If the cheap my essay Model wishes to touch the database it does so by communicating with the DAO.
The Controller calls the View with the result(s) from the Model(s) in order to transform the on finance raw data into HTML. The Controller sends the HTML response back to the client. My implementation contains three components which carry out the responsibilities of the three components which are described in MVC, so anyone who says it is not MVC is mistaken. It also runs on the web, so anyone who says that MVC is not suitable for the web is short essay for college, mistaken.
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We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about help cant do my essay of wealth, You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in order to on finance management, obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an write my essay period, emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for management, marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of Hinduism and Christianity essay services, physical, electronic, and on finance procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over and Christianity the internet can be guaranteed to thesis management, be completely secure.
As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against cant do my redistibution of wealth, the loss, misuse, or alteration of on finance, Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to us at short essay application person Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow. When we dispose of Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and thesis on finance wiping electronic media).
With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on on finance the order, while a Partner receives $50 to essay services, the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is possible to transfer the sum to the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).