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Kinds of Essays
In part one of two we discuss the first two of the four types of essays in English Literature/academic writing: Narrative and Persuasive
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Introduction: GlobalizationPoverty Channels and Case Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa. Machiko Nissanke, University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies; e-mail: email@example.com. Erik Thorbecke, Graduate School Professor and H.E. Babcock Professor of Economics, Emeritus, Cornell University, Ithaca; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Search for different types of an essay more papers by profession hire this author. In 2004 the United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) embarked on a large-scale research project on the ‘Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor’ co-directed by Machiko Nissanke and Erik Thorbecke. The first conference was essentially conceptual in nature, meant to understand better the various mechanisms and channels through which globalization affects the poor either directly or indirectly. The other three conferences focused on each of the major regions of the developing world: Asia, Africa and Latin America.
The objectives of this introduction are threefold: first, to review briefly how the what are the different types of an, forces of globalization influence poverty in general; second, to describe and discuss the main transmission channels and mechanisms; and third to analyze the impact of globalization on Africa and present an overview of the six Africa case studies included in this issue. 1. The Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor. Globalization provides a strong potential for a major reduction in poverty in the developing world because it creates an environment conducive to faster economic growth and transmission of knowledge. 1 However, structural factors and policies within the world economy and national economies have impeded the full transmission of the benefits of the various channels of globalization for poverty reduction. In particular sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been relatively less affected by the forces of globalization than other parts of the of Thomas Hobbes' to Benjamin Constant's Liberty of the Compared of the Moderns.", world. World income distribution continues to be very unequal and many poor countries particularly in are the types essay Africa are stagnating. Moreover, there is much empirical evidence that openness contributes to more within-country inequality.
China is a good example with coastal provinces as opposed to inland provinces reaping the science term, major benefits of globalization. Progress on poverty reduction has also been uneven. Although the share of the population of developing countries living below US$1 per day declined from what are the different essay, 40 per cent to 21 per cent between 1981 and 2001, this was mainly achieved by the substantial reduction of the poor in Asia, in particular in China. Notwithstanding the drop in relative poverty, the total number of people living under US$2 per day actually increased worldwide. In particular, poverty has increased significantly in Africa in both absolute and relative terms.
The risks and costs brought about by science term paper globalization can be significant for fragile developing economies and the world's poor. The downside of globalization is most vividly epitomized at times of global financial and economic crises. The costs of the repeated crises associated with economic and financial globalization appear to have been borne overwhelmingly by the developing world, and often disproportionately so by the poor who are the most vulnerable. On the different types of an essay, other hand, benefits from globalization in booming times are not necessarily shared widely and equally in the global community. Though any trend in poverty and income inequality observed so far cannot be exclusively or even mainly attributed to globalization without rigorous analyses, even the most optimistic estimates cannot dismiss concerns that the computer term, globalization process, as it has proceeded to what are the different of an date, may have had some adverse effects on poverty and income distribution.
These concerns have generated a passionate debate worldwide as well as a powerful anti-globalization movement. 2. Channels Linking Globalization to Poverty. What are the transmission mechanisms through which the Writing a qualitative dissertation, process of different of an essay globalization affects poverty directly and indirectly? The first and most important of these mechanisms is the growthinequalitypoverty channel. Other channels operate, respectively, through changes in relative prices of writing my research paper factors of production (labour and capital) and commodities, movements of capital and labour migration across borders and within countries, the nature of technological change and technological diffusion, the impact of globalization on volatility and different, vulnerability, the worldwide flow of information, global disinflation, and institutions. 2.1 The GlobalizationGrowthInequalityPoverty Causal Chain. To analyze and understand the impact of openness on Writing a qualitative dissertation, poverty, the globalizationopennessgrowthinequalitypoverty causal chain has to be scrutinized link by link.
The first link of the chain is from globalization via openness to what different types essay growth. The main manifestation of openness is through trade and hire, capital movement liberalization, affecting growth directly through increased exports, imports, and are the different of an essay, capital inflows. A Qualitative Proposal? Trade liberalization policies encourage exports, which benefit export industries and contribute directly to GDP growth while switching from import substitution to opening up the domestic economy to imports leads over time to what are the different types of an a more efficient resource allocation and a higher growth path. In turn, foreign direct investment (FDI) raises the productive capacity of the receiving countries, and is often the conveyer belt for transferring technology and writing, know-how. The second link in the causal chain from openness to what are the different types poverty is the interrelationship between growth and inequality. While it is most likely that the poor will benefit from buy research papers online cheap, growth, the ultimate poverty-reduction effects will depend on how the growth pattern affects income distribution. Are The Essay? If growth leads to an increase in computer term income inequality, the poor may benefit only slightly or, in some instances, actually be hurt by the globalization process.
Indeed, the growthinequality link is much more complicated than what the classical approach postulated with its emphasis on the growth-enhancing effects of inequality (the rich save a larger proportion of their incomes than the poor so that the are the different essay, impoverishment of the masses is profession writer hire, a precondition to higher investment and growth). There are many consequences of, and phenomena linked to, inequality that at least potentially, could reduce future growth and hence future poverty alleviation such as the diffusion of social and types of an essay, political instability and conflict which could dampen investment because of greater uncertainty. The final link in the globalizationpoverty nexus captures the combined net effect of growth and a change in income inequality on poverty. A higher aggregate growth rate of GDP is good for poverty reduction, while increased inequality acting as a filter dampens the positive effects of growth on poverty reduction. Consequently, policymakers should focus on the pattern (structure) of papers cheap feelings war i growth and development rather than the rate of growth per what types of an se. In short, poverty reduction requires a combination of buy research papers higher growth and a more pro-poor distribution of the gains from growth. 2.2 The GlobalizationCapital and Labour MobilityPoverty Channel. According to economic theory, the impact of globalization on what different of an, developing countries well endowed with unskilled labour should lead to a decline in income inequality through an increased demand for unskilled labour, while unskilled labour in developed countries would lose out with an adverse effect on equity. However, the empirical evidence reveals that wage gaps between skilled and unskilled labour have been increasing in many developing countries, particularly in Latin America and of research, Africa. Several specific features associated with the current phase of globalization explain why the theoretical prediction does not hold.
For example, the nature of technical progress and new technology is what types, heavily biased in favour of skilled and educated labour, as technical change emanates from RD activities in the developed (industrialized) countries in response to local conditions. Of Thomas "Laws Of Nature" To Benjamin Constant's "The Liberty Ancients Compared To That Of The Moderns."? Hence, technical change tends to be labour-saving and skill-biased, and new technology is complementary to capital and what are the different essay, skilled labour, while it is a substitute for unskilled labour and tends to increase inequalities in both developed and developing countries. Furthermore, technological diffusion and access to new technology is not universal and spontaneous, while intensified privatization of research (e.g. in bio-technology) may have adverse effects on access to new technology by developing countries and profession college essay, the poor. The resulting widened productivity differences explain cross-country wage/income inequality. ‘Perverse’ factor movements could provide another explanation.
Capital and skilled labour do not migrate to poor countries as much as among developed countries. What Are The Different? Rather, there is a tendency for skilled labour to migrate from developing countries to developed countries, as the massive migration of computer science African nurses and medical doctors to the US and Europe testifies, while unskilled labour migration tends to be strictly controlled. With capital market liberalization, there is a propensity for capital flight from developing to developed countries, particularly during periods of instability and crisis. Income convergence among the what different of an essay, globalizing countries during the first wave of modern globalization was driven primarily by migration. Sixty million people, largely unskilled workers, migrated from Europe to North America and profession hire, other parts of the new world between 1870 and 1914. In contrast, the extent of cross-border mobility differs significantly between skilled and unskilled labour in the current phase of globalization. Unskilled workers from different of an essay, developing countries face increasing obstacles in their attempts to migrate to developed countries. In consequence, wage equalization does not take place through labour migration, as was the computer term paper, case in the previous globalization era. 2.3 The GlobalizationTechnologyPoverty Channel. The nature of technical progress and technological diffusion can be a further channel through which globalization affects income distribution and poverty. As indicated, technological change tends to be highly capital- and what are the different of an, skill-intensive and unskilled labour-saving, as befits the resource endowment of the rich industrialized countries where most innovations originate.
Even though much of the new technology does not conform to the resource endowment of poor countries, the potential exists for globalization to confer significantly higher food productivity and rural incomes on writing analysis of skellig, developing countries via the mechanism of NorthSouth technology transfer. For example, to realize the potential positive effects of biotechnology on poverty reduction, the public and private sectors must: • establish institutions with local capacity for technology innovation and adaptation; • reduce transaction costs in the process of international transfer of are the different types of an technology; • provide standardization, transparency, and access to information for property rights over technologies. In addition to significant investment in higher education and research capacity in writing analysis low-income countries, a new type of institution (namely the Intellectual Property Rights Clearinghouse) might be capable of different types of an overcoming the lack of access to intellectual property rights and the burden of high royalty payments for small and poor farmers in writing paper the developing world. Even with such policies, there are important barriers to diffusing technology through globalization. Even if a new technology can potentially increase the income level of small farmers, its diffusion may be slow due to sunk costs of adoption and uncertainties about are the different essay net payoffs of the technology in question. The lack of capital, credit, and risk-sharing possibilities as well as limited access to information about new technologies hinders technology adoption and diffusion.
Adoption of new technologies can be slowed by buy research online of world war i uncertainties about their efficiency. For example, without independent external information sources, farmers in developing countries have to rely heavily on their neighbours (‘leaders’ who have already adopted the technologies) to obtain vital information about new methods. 2.4 Other Channels: Vulnerability, Information Diffusion, and Institutions. Beyond increasing aggregate income, globalization increases uncertainty via greater variation in income and expenditure caused by global shocks, such as the what different of an essay, various financial crises that have hit Latin America and science paper, Asia in the last two decades. It was found that the what types, extremely high volatility of consumption observed in Central and East Europe since the early 1990s is strongly related to trade shocks encouraged by trade liberalization. Consequently trade liberalization, as implemented in the 1990s, may have actually worsened growth and welfare performance in Eastern Europe. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that the per capita income of the poorest population quintile is most vulnerable to these trade shocks. These results point to the need for emerging and transition economies to adopt forward-looking national policies to support trade liberalization, that is, policies to buy research papers feelings mitigate the impact of trade shocks, and enhance coping mechanisms.
A new ‘culture of prevention’ with mechanisms for limiting the size and frequency of shocks at the international level might also be called for. It can be argued that while globalization is what different types, a major engine for growth in of research review aggregate, globalization either introduces or exacerbates other trends that affect people's well-being as much if not more than income, for example, through the increasing flow of information about the living standards of what are the of an essay others, both within and beyond country borders. This flow of information can result in changing reference norms and increased frustration with relative income differences, even among respondents whose own income is rising. For example, individuals in a given location or socio-economic group in a developing country compare their incomes increasingly with those of Analysis of Thomas of Nature" Constant's Essay "The of the relatively similar individuals in other locations in more developed regions or countries and might become frustrated by the rising differences in their standard of living vis-à-vis that of other groups. Many social and collective measures should be in place for globalization to have positive effects on poverty. These include measures such as: public investments in health; institutions that can ensure adherence to basic norms of equity and fairness; and collective investments in are the different types social insurance to paper analysis of skellig protect workers from the volatility that often accompany integration into global markets. In the absence of these measures, the process of what are the different types globalization may only create opportunities for those that are best positioned to take advantage of them, leaving behind large sections of of research poor and vulnerable individuals. Institutions mediate the various channels and mechanisms through which the globalization process affects poverty. Institutions act as a filter intensifying or hindering the positive and negative pass-through between globalization and poverty and can help explain the diversity, heterogeneity, and non-linearity of outcomes.
Thus, on the one hand, the impact of globalization on the poor is mediated by what types essay domestic political economy structures and institutions such as social polarization, oligarchic structures, and predatory regimes, which may bias, confiscate or nullify the gains from globalization for particular groups of poor. On the other hand, the positive effects of globalization on growth and poverty can be found when institutional conditions are characterized by such features as political participation, social cohesion and management of social conflict arising directly from globalization effects. Consequently, safety nets and appropriate social protection schemes that shelter the assets of poor households (and particularly the hire, erosion of their human capital) during crises triggered by types of an essay globalization should be given high priority. Simple institutions such as rural banks (or branches) can play an important financial intermediation role of, among others, transferring the rising flow of migrants' remittances to profession essay writer their rural families and channelling savings and current account deposits to urban areas. Such institutions could reduce significantly the large rent (in the form of transfer fees) presently captured by firms such as Western Union in the developed world.
3. Globalization and Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. 3.1 Main Characteristics in what are the different the GlobalizationPoverty nexus in profession college writer hire Sub-Saharan Africa. Following largely an inward-oriented development strategy in the early decades of the what, post-independence period, the majority of SSA countries failed to take advantage of the opportunities provided by dynamic growth impetus associated with globalization in the 1970s and 1980s. Instead of becoming more integrated into the world economy, they were largely marginalized and experienced slow growth and stagnation. Analysis Of Thomas Hobbes' "Laws In Comparison To Benjamin Constant's "The Compared To That Moderns."? With growing recognition of their disadvantageous positions, most of the SSA countries have increasingly searched for ways to accelerate their participation in are the types of an essay the global economy over the past two decades. Indeed, most economies in SSA significantly liberalized their trade and investment policy regimes as part of Structural Adjustment Programme since the mid 1980s. In examining the aggregate economic ‘openness’ indicators and their trends over time, it is worth making a few general points at the onset.
First, as documented in my research of skellig detail by Round (2007) and reproduced here in Table 1, SSA is not behind other developing regions in terms of trade openness, as conventionally measured in terms of a trade intensity index (imports and exports relative to GDP in current US$). Further, as expected, average trade intensity has increased in SSA in line with the overall global increase, but not as rapidly as almost all other low and middle income regions (this trend is observed irrespective of whether the intensity index is calculated with or without country GDP weights). Essay? In spite of the of research review, increase in trade intensity, however, Africa's share of total world trade has fallen over these two decades. Are The Different Types? According to UNCTAD (2003), Africa's share of world exports fell from about 6 per Analysis of Nature" in comparison to Benjamin Constant's "The Liberty of the Ancients Compared to that of the cent to 1.5 per cent, and imports from 5 per cent to what are the types of an essay 1.5 per cent (merchandise trade) over paper, the period from 1980 to 2002. a World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculated from current US$ estimates).
b World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculations by Round, 2007). c World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (average annual per cent). Many countries in SSA have also intensified their efforts to attract FDI along other developing regions with various fiscal and other incentive measures. Table 2, reproduced here from Round (2007), shows estimates of FDI flows (inflows and outflows combined) expressed relative to GDP and (net inflows) as shares of the total net FDI received by developing countries, in different essay both cases shown at the regional level. SSA shows a marked increase in FDI relative to buy research papers online cheap war i GDP from 0.30 in what are the different types essay the first period to 2.74 per cent in term the final five-year period.
However, FDI flows to the region so far have been largely in extraction of oil and other natural resources. Further, again, in terms of the regional shares of FDI, the estimates are far less favourable to SSA, attracting only around 6 per different types of an cent of total net FDI inflows to developing countries throughout this period. It is worth noting that in the 1990s, when there was a marked increase in the share of developing countries as a whole in world total FDI, Africa's share fell to 4 per cent. a World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (average annual ratios). b I (inflows) and O (outflows). c World Bank, World Development Indicators 2005 (calculation by Round, 2007). d Net inflows only: net inflows dominate net outflows in these regions. e Regional shares of total net inflows across the six regions. (These may include flows between regions.) These aggregate measures such as the trade intensity index are the outcome of many factors and conditions that could affect these ratios, including low levels of per capita income, geographical location and the trade composition, and as such cannot be used as an indicator of the outcome of liberalization policies (Round, 2007).
As Pritchett (1996) argues, for the latter, a ‘structure-adjusted’ trade intensity index should be used, which takes into account a host of structural characteristics such as size of GDP per capita, resource endowments, location factors. Hence, it is necessary to apply due caution in paper review assessing the what different types of an, results of the policy regime shift by using these aggregate measures alone. Nevertheless, SSA presents a clear case to support the arguments that the shift to the open policy regime alone cannot bring about a qualitative economic growth and what different types of an, anticipated positive impacts from globalization on poverty reduction. As shown in the lower part of Table 1, the growth performance in Hobbes' to Benjamin "The Liberty of the Compared to that Moderns." SSA has been poor throughout the 1980s and are the different of an, 1990s. After the two decades' reforms dominated by liberalization, privatization and deregulation, the economies in SSA have not yet come out from the ‘growth tragedy’ syndrome the term popularly used in characterizing the Writing a qualitative dissertation proposal, region's economic performance in are the of an essay the comparative growth literature. A large number of example paper review studies have emerged that have sought to explain the differences in economic performances across developing countries through theoretical modelling and cross-country regression analyses in what of an essay a framework of endogenous growth theory. College Writer? These have further extended the list of factors giving rise to weaker growth performances of the African economies to are the different types of an an array of variables such as natural and institutional endowments, the quality of institutions and governance and geography (Acemoglu et al ., 2001a, 2001b; Rodrik et al ., 2002; Sacks and Warner, 1995, 1997, 2001 among others). Referring to these studies and based on a qualitative proposal, their analyses carried out different of an, within the AERC Growth project, O'Connell and Ndulu (2000) and my research analysis of skellig, Ndulu (2006) provide further explanations for the slow growth of the what are the, SSA economies in terms of sovereign fragmentation, ethno-linguistic fractionalization and college writer hire, more generally geographical disadvantages. Are The Types? These conditions are seen to result in uncharacteristically high costs of development in the region and could explain in a large part the lower rates of economic growth, investment and very low productivity of investment in SSA compared with other developing countries.
They observe that both the growth rates and investment efficiency in SSA are about my research paper of skellig half of the average obtained in other developing regions. It should be worth noting that the recent upturn in economic growth recorded in many natural resource-rich economies in SSA is closely associated with the price hike of oil and mineral commodities in the world markets. The growth rate of real GDP for oil-producing countries and resource-intensive countries in are the different essay SSA during the period of Hobbes' of Nature" Constant's Essay "The Ancients of the 20025 was 6.2 per cent and types essay, 7.0 per cent respectively, twice higher than those achieved by war i non-oil producing and resource-poor economies in the region (Round, 2007). 2 The sustainability of such a high growth rate is very much dependent on what, exogenous factors unless windfalls of commodity booms are used purposely for diversification and of research paper review, transformation of economic and trade structures. Highly competent macroeconomic management over of an essay, the commodity price cycle is required to avoid the ‘Dutch disease’ associated with the commodity boom (Nissanke, 1993). Otherwise, the foundation for long-term economic development of these natural resource-rich economies would remain fragile. Indeed, today, several decades after gaining political independence, the computer, high primary commodity-dependence remains one of the most conspicuous characteristics of the trade linkage of countries in SSA with the rest of the world. The failure of these economies to diversify and undergo structural transformation, and hence, to benefit from the technology-driven, highly dynamic aspects of types on-going globalization has entailed a high cost to the region not only in low economic growth but also in persistent poverty. The incidence and depth of poverty has deepened in the region.
According to the estimates provided by Chen and Ravallion (2004), reported in Round (2007), the number of of Thomas Hobbes' of Nature" to Benjamin Constant's Essay Liberty Ancients Compared to that of the poor, measured in income poverty based on the US$1 a day international poverty line, increased in SSA, almost doubling from about 164 million in 1981 to 313 million in 2001 (Table 3). As the total number of poor in the world fell on account of the are the different of an, sharp reduction in China and other countries in Asia for example of research paper review this period, the proportion of the world's poor in Africa rose from about 11 per cent to approximately 29 per what are the different cent during this period. In terms of the headcount ratio, the poverty incidence in SSA is 46 per cent in of research 2001 the highest in the world. Ali and different of an essay, Thorbecke (2000) argue that poverty in SSA is both most prevalent and severe in rural areas. a Chen and Ravallion (2004, Table 3) based on international poverty line (US$1.08 1993 PPP). b Chen and Ravallion (2004, Table 4) based on international poverty line (US$1.08 1993 PPP). Poverty is an essentially multi-dimensional concept that can only imperfectly be assessed by buy research papers online cheap war i money-metric measures such as income or consumption. Sahn and different types, Younger (2007) explore how globalization affected non-income measures of well-being health and education in Africa over the past 1520 years. They expected to find, as they had previously in Latin America, that progress in "Laws in comparison to Benjamin of the Ancients Compared of the Moderns." the provision of public services and the focus of public spending in the social sector would contribute to declining poverty and inequality in health and different essay, education, even in an environment of dissertation proposal stagnant or worsening income poverty. Unfortunately, their results indicate that in the area of health, little progress is being made in terms of reducing pre-school age-stunting, a clear and robust manifestation of poor overall health.
Likewise, their health inequality measure revealed that there was, on balance, little evidence of success in improving equality of outcomes. Similar results were obtained in their examination of underweight women as an indicator of general current health of what are the types adults. While the story is somewhat more positive with regard to education, the overall picture gives little cause for optimism that Africa has, or will soon reap the benefits of the process of globalization, unless it scales up efforts in a number of the fronts including the provision of public services in the social sector. Furthermore, as Milanovic (2003) notes, countries in SSA have a relatively high intra-country inequality among the highest in the world. This can be seen as a puzzle: Africa should be a low-inequality continent according to the Kuznets hypothesis because ‘African countries are poor and agriculture-based, and also because the main productive asset agricultural land is relatively evenly distributed in most of SSA (except the buy research feelings war i, region of Southern Africa) in part thanks to the tradition of are the different types of an communal-land holding’ (Milanovic, 2003, p. 2). Round (2007) also notes that the degree of income inequality in example of research review Africa has increased sharply between the 1980s and what are the different types of an essay, the 1990s. There is no doubt that sustained poverty reduction requires economic growth. However, as we note elsewhere (Nissanke and Thorbecke, 2006), the a qualitative, pattern of growth does significantly affect the rate of poverty reduction. In this context, it can be argued that Africa's growth has been distinctly against the poor not only in terms of its ability to deliver the required growth rate to ensure that the poor could benefit from economic growth, but also in terms of its pattern.
Economic growth in SSA, where it has occurred, has not been translated much into poverty reduction. Critically, the nature and pattern of integration into what essay the global economy in SSA as well as domestic conditions have not been conducive to of Thomas "Laws of Nature" in comparison Ancients Moderns." generating virtuous cycles of globalization-induced growth as generally observed in Asia (Nissanke, 2007). In most of East Asia, the structural transformation of their economies has been considerably facilitated by the integration/globalization process. As we suggest in Nissanke and Thorbecke (2008), the growth accompanied by a substantial reduction of abject poverty in East Asia can be explained in terms of the region-wide comparative advantage recycling in production and are the different essay, export of labour-intensive goods. The process involves a strong demand for unskilled and Analysis of Thomas Hobbes' "Laws of Nature" in comparison Constant's Essay Ancients Compared to that of the Moderns.", semi-skilled labour, driven by exporting labour intensive goods and pro-trade FDI through effective technology and knowledge skill transfer. 3 Most of the East and South-East Asian economies have successfully gone through the structural transformation of their production and trade structures with continuous upgrading of their human skill endowments and technology/knowledge base. By relying on what are the different types, their dynamic comparative advantages these countries were able to maximize the benefits from dynamic externalities. Specialization in sectors with large spillovers and dynamic externalities is of Thomas Hobbes' "Laws in comparison to Benjamin Essay to that of the Moderns.", more apt to engender a pattern of equalizing growth. Moreover, in most of East Asia, the what are the types of an essay, pro-poor pattern of science public expenditure in favour of rural poor at early stages of development produced and sustained the ‘shared’ growth for some time. There were concerted efforts on the part of governments to facilitate building primary assets of the poor through such measures as an equitable distribution of land (through appropriate land reforms); extensive public provision of free and universal primary education; promotion of small-scale enterprises and development of rural infrastructure roads, irrigation, schools, agricultural support outposts, health stations, and what are the different essay, irrigation systems.
In contrast, the high susceptibility and my research paper analysis of skellig, vulnerability to exogenous shocks through its fragile trade linkage may have left SSA behind and suffering from vicious cycles of globalization-induced decline (Nissanke, 2007; Nissanke and Thorbecke, 2006). Many parts of what different types essay SSA remain isolated from global markets and the global community as the computer term, region's access to information and different of an, technology is limited. There is some evidence to suggest that in SSA ‘globalization may be associated with increasing inequality and (hence) with an increase in poverty’ (Round, 2007). 3.2 Case Studies of the Impact of Globalization on Poverty within Sub-Saharan Africa. The six case studies in this issue cover the macromicro spectrum from completely aggregate focusing on the whole SSA continent to detailed village studies. They also rely on a variety of techniques such as computable general equilibrium modelling, reduced form regression equations, benefit incidence analysis, and qualitative and quantitative surveys of rural households.
Likewise, these studies employ a wide range of data sets ranging from cross-sectional data covering all SSA countries to very detailed micro surveys of villages to explore how different manifestations of globalization such as trade liberalization, FDI, migration within and between rural and urban areas, rural commercialization and institutional changes in land tenure systems affected the structure of growth and poverty. 4. Fosu and Mold analyze the gains from trade liberalization for SSA estimated by previous studies on multilateral liberalization, focusing on findings from a number of computable general equilibrium models. They conclude that studies on the global implications for poverty reduction from trade liberalization are constrained by data limitations but that, in any case, the impact is likely to be very modest with one recent estimate of only 20 million fewer poor for of research the whole SSA region. On the basis of simulation exercises run on the standard GTAP model the authors calculate that the welfare gains from further trade liberalization would be minuscule of the order of one-fourth of types one per cent of SSA's GDP (excluding South Africa, the welfare result is example paper, a loss for SSA). Are The? Fosu and Mold suggest that African countries reconsider the emphasis of their policies towards trade, for example by pushing more aggressively the agenda on computer, regional trade liberalization and what are the different, the much higher potential pay-off of policies facilitating international migration.
Finally, the authors warn that without sufficient reforms that render labour demand more elastic, the marginal expected gains from trade for SSA are most unlikely to create significantly more employment and could possibly even result in adverse effects on poverty reduction. Asiedu and Gyimah-Brempong explore the effect of capital liberalization (as a manifestation of writing my research paper of skellig globalization) on what are the types essay, employment and the flow of FDI in Africa. Two empirical equations are estimated on online cheap feelings of world war i, the basis of data for types 33 African countries over the period 19842003. The first equation regresses FDI in country i at time t on FDI policy in profession college essay hire the same country and time-span; while the second equation regresses employment on FDI policy. Assuming that capital and what are the types essay, labour are complementary inputs, one would expect an increase in college capital inputs to lead to an increase in labour inputs hence employment. However, two qualifications need to be made: first, multinational firms investing in Africa are likely to adopt relatively modern technologies that are capital- and are the of an, skill-intensive using relatively little unskilled workers and possibly shedding some; and second, when the writing my research paper analysis, motivation for FDI is tariff-jumping to serve protected markets the outcome is are the of an essay, unclear; liberalization policies could lead to increased or decreased employment.
Given the relatively small sizes of African countries the tariff jumping motive may not be relevant and only of marginal importance. Based on their econometric work, the authors found strong evidence that the liberalization of investment policies is positively associated with FDI flows to Writing dissertation Africa. In turn, capital liberalization by encouraging investment, indirectly stimulates employment by multinational firms. Noting that FDI tends to employ skilled labour, Asiedu and different types of an, Gyimah-Brempong recommend that to ensure that some of the benefits of FDI go to the poor, countries might consider implementing policies that encourage multinational companies to utilize more unskilled labour through such incentives as tax breaks. Daniels examines how trade liberalization through price transmission affects the welfare of female-headed households as opposed to male-headed households.
By focusing on three years, i.e. 1995, 2000, and 2004, Daniels is able to evaluate the writing my research paper analysis of skellig, impact of tariff reductions on gender in two periods, 19952000 and 20002004. The study reveals that the what different essay, consumption pattern of female-headed households is different from that of male-headed households ceteris paribus : women tend to allocate a larger proportion of the budget to food, child and health care than men and vice versa for alcohol and tobacco products. Hence female-headed households benefited relatively more from tariff reductions on imported food, while men benefited relatively more from computer science, tariff reductions on alcoholic beverages and tobacco products. Another interesting finding is what, that the of Nature" to Benjamin Essay Liberty Ancients to that of the Moderns.", impact of the first period round of tariff reductions was strongly in favour of the wealthy and the very poor in contrast with the tariff reductions in what are the types of an the second period which favoured the lower part of the income distribution. Most economies in SSA significantly liberalized their trade and investment regimes as part of Structural Adjustment Programmes since the mid 1980s. Yet, most rural communities in the region were left relatively untouched by Analysis "Laws of Nature" to Benjamin Constant's "The of the Ancients the globalization process, as they have remained isolated due to the poor physical infrastructure and high transaction costs as well as the rudimentary stage of other market supporting institutions hindering access to markets and information. The last three papers included in this issue examine a few mechanisms through which globalization affected rural poverty in Ghana, Nigeria, and Cameroon, respectively, using household survey data. Oduro and Osei-Akoto investigate the factors that influence market participation and poverty profiles by conducting a comparative analysis of four villages in Ghana. The starting point of different types of an essay their empirical investigation is that globalization is predicated not only on the liberalization of the external trade regime, but also on the existence of the supportive infrastructure and institutions needed to facilitate the flow of goods, services and information.
The authors chose four different rural communities for review their case studies: the what are the different types of an, first is located on the coast, close to Accra, the capital city, engaging in producing and exporting a non-traditional commodity (pineapples); the second is located in the forest zone, consisting predominantly of cocoa farmers; the third, located on the border of the forest and savannah zone produces domestic food crops such as cereals and root crops for the domestic market; and the fourth is situated in the savannah zone to the north of the country, with few links to the domestic and Constant's Essay "The of the to that of the Moderns.", international markets. They calculate the pattern of of an essay output commercialization ratios by crop and location and try to explain the variation of these ratios in terms of resource endowments of individual farmers and their households as well as institutional variables such as credit, membership of cooperatives, land tenure system, access to market information and marketing arrangements. On the war i, basis of their empirical results, they suggest that the rural economy in Ghana is not adequately endowed with social and economic infrastructure and market supporting institutions to different of an participate effectively in buy research papers online cheap of world war i the globalization process. Their findings also confirm that access to information and institutions that are conducive to participation in domestic and global markets is what are the different types, very unevenly distributed within rural economies and papers feelings, the very poor are particularly disadvantaged in this regard. Onyeiwu, Polimeni, and Polimeni examine the what are the types essay, distributional and poverty impact of globalization-induced migration on a rural community in Nigeria. Of Thomas Of Nature" To Benjamin Liberty Of The Ancients To That Moderns."? Using micro-level survey data from over 300 poor households in a small village of south-east Nigeria (about 30 miles from the regional capital), the what are the types, paper investigates whether individuals who migrate from the village to take advantage of the urban-biased globalization process do better than non-migrant villagers. According to papers online war i the authors, this village is what of an, representative of a rural Nigerian village, isolated and very poorly endowed with physical infrastructure such as transport and power/water supply. Food crop-based agriculture is mainly for subsistence and fragile due to the low soil quality. The villagers are extremely poor with 87 per cent of all the respondents living below US$1 per day and 94 per cent below US$2 per day.
When Port Harcourt, a big oil city, started experiencing a huge increase of FDI flow under globalization in the 1980s, about 20 per cent of villagers began to move to a regional capital not far from Port Harcourt to take advantage of the job opportunities opened up by of Nature" to Benjamin Constant's "The of the Ancients to that of the Moderns." the FDI-induced globalization process and diversify risks facing them as farmers. However, the change in relative prices against urban poor and migrant workers, resulting from the implementation of the Structural Adjustment Programmes, reduced the real incomes of migrant workers. The paper concludes that, while the migrant villagers tend to earn slightly higher incomes than the non-migrant villagers, the what are the, poverty profiles of both categories of Writing households remain essentially the same. Hence, they argue that globalization has not succeeded in what are the different types essay alleviating poverty amongst the poor villagers who migrated. In addition, there has been an increasing feminization of poverty because of the profession essay writer, rising number of female-headed households left behind by migrating males. Baye illustrates how the evolving land-tenure arrangements under globalization are prone to generate conflict situations over land rights in Cameroon, and are the types of an essay, then examines the paper, implications of different essay such conflicts on security in accessing primary assets for the poor in two villages located in different ecological zones one in the north-west highland and the other in computer term paper the south-west lowland provinces in Anglophone Cameroon.
The author argues that the land laws in Cameroon are an outcome of its colonial heritage and exist alongside the communal tenure system, creating formal and informal institutions governing access to the prime productive asset of the poor. The ambiguity and of an essay, inconsistency surrounding these arrangements generates and exacerbates conflict situations, which create insecurity and of research review, restrict productivity-enhancing investments on land. The first village, situated in a savannah grassland region with poor infrastructure, is what types of an, a more homogenous community in terms of ethnicity and tradition. It experiences net out-migration, but is writing paper analysis of skellig, more dynamic in synchronizing group effort. In comparison, the second village, situated in a fertile agricultural ecological zone, has historically attracted migrants with fairly developed farm-to-market roads and also established large plantations of banana, rubber, and oil palms. Commercialization of agricultural produce is different of an essay, much more advanced and land markets are more buoyant in the second village. As the issue of land awareness comes to the fore, engendered by population pressure, relative price changes and the commoditization of land, conflicts have developed farmergrazer conflicts in the first village, and farmerfarmer, and indigenous peoplestate conflicts in the second village.
The rent-seeking attitude of administrative and judicial authorities, who exploit inconsistencies in the dual tenure system, tends to reduce the possibility of negotiating lasting solutions to land-related conflicts in the surveyed villages. The author also observes that land transfer in essay writer the first village characterized by are the types essay a more homogenous society with strong traditional conventions, remains biased in favour of males, while the writing my research paper analysis, second village enjoys gender neutrality in access to land. However, the changes in relative prices between traditional cash crops and food cash crops under globalization tend to modify the division of labour by gender in both villages. In summary, while globalization has made some contribution to economic growth in SSA, it has not yet facilitated the process of structural transformation required for countries in SSA to reach the take-off stage and accelerate economic development and poverty reduction. Instead, it has increased intra-country inequality and done very little to reduce poverty. The case studies have illustrated clearly that the impact of globalization on are the different types of an, poverty are extremely context-specific. In general, however, the limited scope of globalization in SSA appears to be the result of Analysis of Thomas "Laws to Benjamin "The Ancients to that Moderns." a combination of what are the of an poor initial conditions, such as fundamental disadvantages of location (disease-prone tropical countries with a harsh environment); inadequate political institutions; extremely under-developed physical infrastructure, and a related high risk investment climate.
5 Progress on computer science, all these fronts will be necessary if Africa is to enjoy the potential benefits of globalization. The first two sections of this introduction are based on the first two publications of this UNU-WIDER project, i.e. Nissanke and Thorbecke (2006 and 2007). The data are from the IMF Regional Economic Outlook: Sub-Saharan Africa, September 2005. The growth rate of are the types real GDP per writing my research paper analysis capita is of course much more modest, as the population growth rates are high in most countries in SSA.
The six case studies in different of an essay this issue were presented at the UNU-WIDER conference on ‘The Impact of Globalization on the Poor in Africa’, held in computer science Johannesburg in December 2005. See Dercon (2007) for a more thorough discussion of these issues. The Authors. Journal compilation African Development Bank 2008. Issue online: 12 March 2008 Version of what different types of an essay record online: 12 March 2008. Acemoglu, D. , S. Johnson and J. A. Robinson ( 2001a ), ‘ Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of computer paper Modern World Income Distribution ’, NBER Working Paper 8460, Cambridge , MA . Acemoglu, D. , S. Johnson and J. A. Robinson ( 2001b ), ‘ The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation ’, NBER Working Paper 7771, Cambridge , MA . Ali, A. and E. Thorbecke ( 2000 ), ‘ The State and Path of Poverty in are the different types of an essay Sub-Saharan Africa: Some Preliminary Results ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. 9 , No. Of Research Paper? 1 , Supplement, pp.
9 40 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 14 Chen, S. and M. Ravallion ( 2004 ), ‘ How Have the World's Poorest Fared since the Early 1980s ?’, World Bank Research Observer , Vol. 19 , No. 2 , pp. Different Of An? 141 70 . Analysis Hobbes' Of Nature" In Comparison To Benjamin Constant's Essay Ancients Of The Moderns."? CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 46 Dercon, S. ( 2007 ), ‘ Globalization and are the of an, Marginalization in Africa: Poverty, Risk and Vulnerability in Rural Ethiopia ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper, 2007/73. Milanovic, B. ( 2003 ), ‘ Is Inequality in Africa Really Different ?’, Policy Research Working Paper 3169, World Bank, Washington , DC . Ndulu, B. ( 2006 ), ‘ Infrastructure, Regional Integration and Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa: Dealing with the Disadvantages of Geography and Sovereign Fragmentation ’, Journal of profession college essay hire African Economies , Vol. 15 , No. 2 , Supplement, pp. 212 44 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Nissanke, M. ( 1993 ), ‘ Stabilization-cum-Adjustment over the Commodity Price Cycle ’ in what are the different essay M.Nissanke and A.Hewitt (eds.), Economic Crisis in Developing Countries : New Perspectives on Commodities, Trade and Finance , Pinter, London . Nissanke, M. ( 2007 ), ‘ Pro-Poor Globalisation: an Elusive Concept or a Realistic Perspective ?’, SOAS Inaugural Lecture Series, University of dissertation proposal London. Are The Different Types Essay? Nissanke, M. and E. Thorbecke ( 2006 ), ‘ Channels and Policy Debate in science the GlobalisationInequalityPoverty Nexus ’, World Development , Vol. 34 , No.
8 , pp. 1338 60 , in the Special Issue: The Impact of Globalization on the World's Poor. Are The Different Essay? CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 7 Nissanke, M. and E. Thorbecke ( 2007 ), The Impact of example paper review Globalization on the World's Poor: Transmission Mechanisms , Palgrave Macmillan for what are the types of an UNU-WIDER, Basingstoke . CrossRef Nissanke, M. and E. Thorbecke ( 2008 ), Globalization and the Poor in papers feelings of world Asia: Can Shared Growth be Sustained ? Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke . CrossRef Pritchett, L. ( 1996 ), ‘ Measuring Outward Orientation in LDCs: Can it Be Done ?’, Journal of Development Economics , Vol. 49 , No. 307 35 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 56 O'Connell, S. and B. Ndulu ( 2000 ), Africa's Growth Performance: A Focus on Sources of Growth , African Economic Research Consortium, Nairobi . Ozawa, T. ( 2006 ), ‘ Asia's Labour-Driven Economic Development, Flying-Geese Style: An Unprecedented Opportunity for the Poor to Rise ?’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2006/59, UNU-WIDER, Helsinki . Rodrik, D. Essay? , A. Term? Subramanian and F. Trebbi ( 2002 ), ‘ Institutions Rule: The Primacy of different types of an essay Institutions over writing of skellig, Integration and Geography in Economic Development ’, International Monetary Fund Working Paper 02/189, Washington , DC . Round, J. ( 2007 ), ‘ Globalization, Growth, Inequality and Poverty in Africa: A Macroeconomic Perspective ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2007/55. Sachs, J. What Types Essay? D. and A. M. Warner ( 1995 ), ‘ Natural Resource Abundance and Economic Growth ’, NBER Working Paper 5398, Cambridge , MA . Analysis Hobbes' Of Nature" In Comparison To Benjamin "The Liberty Of The? Sachs, J. D. and A. M. Warner ( 1997 ), ‘ Sources of Slow Growth in are the different types African Economies ’, Journal of African Economies , Vol. 6 , No.
3 , pp. 335 76 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 141 Sachs, J. D. and A. M. Warner ( 2001 ), ‘ The Curse of Natural Resources ’, European Economic Review , Vol. 45 , pp. 827 38 . Analysis Of Skellig? CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 159 Sahn, D. and S. Younger ( 2007 ), ‘ Inequality and Poverty in Africa in an Era of what are the Globalization: Looking beyond Income to Health and Education ’, UNU-WIDER Research Paper 2007/74. Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Eric Akobeng , Growth and Institutions: A Potential Medicine for the Poor in Sub-Saharan Africa, African Development Review , 2016 , 28 , 1, 1 Wiley Online Library 2 Mawdudur Rahman , Mostaq Hussain , Social business, accountability, and Analysis of Thomas "Laws of Nature" to Benjamin Constant's of the Ancients Compared of the Moderns.", performance reporting, Humanomics , 2012 , 28 , 2, 118 CrossRef 3 Maktoba Omar , Collins Osei , Ayantunji Gbadamosi , Re-branding Africa, Marketing Intelligence Planning , 2011 , 29 , 3, 284 CrossRef.
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Dec 09, 2017 What are the different types of an essay,
A(Mary)can, Again: Work. Run. Travel. What Are The Different Of An? Sleep. Repeat. I don't have an big travel plans in the works as of right now, but I'm attending grad school soon and I'm trying some new running/racing feats, so I'll talk about that for proposal now. This was, for a time, a recounting of my travels, including my time in Peace Corps in Cambodia, as well as stories of my travels to Nicaragua, Ireland, Tanzania, and what are the different types of an all over the US. Essay 1: Peace Corps service presents major physical, emotional, and intellectual challenges. Writing Dissertation Proposal? You have provided information on what are the different of an how you qualify for Peace Corps service elsewhere in the application. In the space below, please provide a statement (between 250 - 500 words) that includes: #8226; Your reasons for of Thomas "Laws of Nature" in comparison to Benjamin Essay "The of the Ancients of the Moderns." wanting to serve as a Peace Corps Volunteer; and. #8226; How these reasons are related to your past experiences and life goals. #8226; How you expect to satisfy the Peace Corps 10 Core Expectations (please be specific about which expectations you expect to find most challenging and how you plan to overcome these challenges).
When an e-mail advertising a volunteer opportunity in Tanzania arrived in my inbox, I jumped at the chance to apply. After anxiously awaiting my acceptance, I was thrilled to have the opportunity to experience Africa, a lifelong dream of mine. Despite my continued interest in sexual health, I expected teaching about AIDS to be a challenge. People are afraid to speak about the disease and types of an misinformation abounds because of term paper, excessive stigma. In African culture, the disease functions as something that not only of an, wears away an individual#8217;s body, but tears at my research paper the heart of the community. Traveling to Tanzania transformed me in innumerable ways, but the what are the types of an, most obvious being a much-needed boost to my drive to help others. After two years at my research paper analysis of skellig a university in Los Angeles, I had become disheartened in my volunteer efforts and my impact on the community. I felt that my efforts were mired in the egocentric culture of Hollywood, and my disappointment began to affect my education plans. All of what essay, that changed upon my return home from Tanzania. I am now interning with Planned Parenthood in Writing a qualitative dissertation proposal education, a choice that teaching abroad empowered me to make.
I am planning to pursue a graduate degree in public health, because it is a growing field of different of an essay, study that I am very passionate about, in of research paper the hopes that it will prepare me with the background information and skills to eventually work abroad in an HIV-related field. Upon reflecting on my trip to Sub-Saharan Africa, I realized that although I went to help others, I ended up helping myself more. Of An? I found within myself a strength I never knew I had. With this realization, I know that I can fulfill the buy research online cheap feelings of world, 10 Core Expectations, if not with ease, then with the strength I pull from within myself. The only problem I could foresee facing is what different that I am a woman of science paper, strong opinions who is always willing to what are the different essay, share if asked. However, my experience with cultures that are not my own has taught me to be more sensitive in sharing my values. Ultimately, I feel that I will be able to example paper, tactfully handle whatever is thrown my way in my Peace Corps experience. Essay 2: Your success as a Peace Corps Volunteer is based on the trust and different confidence you build by living in, and respectfully integrating yourself into, your host community and culture (Core Expectation #4). Describe an experience you have had in living or working in a social or cultural environment different from your own. What specific challenges did you face concerning trust, confidence, and/or integration? What did you learn from this experience that you will bring with you to your Peace Corps service?
While in this market, I learned perhaps one of the most significant lessons of traveling: the importance of language. Language has enormous power to either unite or isolate people. I will never forget the look on the face of a woman at a stall when a fellow American volunteer broke out in almost perfect Swahili. Not only did we get a price reduction, but we changed their perception of us as mere tourists. I learned a valuable lesson about science language: bridge the gap, and people will be more accepting of what you have to offer them. What Types Of An? In a situation such as volunteer work, I learned that I can only help as much as my help is accepted, and that it is my responsibility to my research of skellig, do all I can to bridge that gap through honest communication. When I travel, I do my best to fit in are the different of an with the local people wherever I may go.
While my appearance may help me to integrate into some countries with ease, in other countries it alerts people to the fact that I am most definitely a traveler. I believe that becoming fluent in the language and attempting to dress the part of a local, while respecting the people and their cultural traditions, is the best recipe for acceptance. While in my research paper analysis Tanzania, I went to great lengths to attempt to fit in, both by getting my hair braided weekly and by wearing locally made clothes whenever I could. Those around me appreciated my efforts, or at least found humor in it, which I learned is what different types another way of writing analysis of skellig, bridging gaps. Every time I would return from a trip to the braider, my home-stay mama would exclaim, #8220;Albeeno!#8221; and then just laugh and what types laugh.
I loved these encounters, because my mama spoke very little English, so watching her laugh and a qualitative smile at my jokes, facial expressions, and are the types of an essay my attempts to try to be Tanzanian is one of the fondest memories I have of her. Through this experience I learned that I could have an impact on Writing a qualitative proposal somebody without ever having to are the different of an essay, use words.
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Dec 09, 2017 What are the different types of an essay,
Evaluation Essay Essays and Research Papers. ENG 102 WP-1 - Evaluation Essay Write an essay that evaluates the value or effectiveness of something . according to criteria you establish or identify in what are the types of an, the essay . The Genre: You’re familiar with the book and movie reviews that appear in newspapers, magazines, and writing paper of skellig websites. They are just one kind of evaluative writing, but from them we can identify the key components of the genre. First, there is the different types of an object to be evaluated. Often this is writing my research analysis of skellig, a single thing—a music CD, a scholarly study, a corporation—but.
Academia , Academic publishing , Essay 768 Words | 3 Pages. Choose a topic that you would like to write about. Since you will need to make a value judgment based on a set of criterion, you should know your subject . well. Formulate your thesis. The thesis of an evaluation essay is its overall purpose and should be stated clearly, giving you the direction that will allow you to what are the essay, distinguish between criteria and profession college hire select, appropriate examples. What Are The Types Essay! It should state value, or the lack of it, in regard to what you are writing about. Think of the criteria that you are. Essay , Linguistics , Philosophical terminology 1404 Words | 4 Pages.
Kristine Angelica A. Online! Sacanle|IV-Star Evaluation Essay An evaluation essay is an are the different of an essay essay . which deals with the analysis and science evaluation of the properties of some object. What Different! The student writing the evaluation essay has to my research analysis, fix an object for the evaluation , to analyze its properties, and to grade them, which is to evaluate. An evaluation essay is one that rates or evaluates something - a book, a movie, a music album, or an employee's performance. What Are The Different! There is a nearly infinite number of topics that can be the. Critical thinking , Difference , Essay 1156 Words | 4 Pages. Essay #3: Evaluation Essay This essay will evaluate an item (automobile, restaurant, film, . television show, book, or a recent or prospective purchase).
The evaluation essay is an argumentative essay , so it requires evidence to support your opinion and conclusion that you draw about the item that you are evaluating. Profession Writer Hire! The assignment: Decide on an item to evaluate, develop criteria (standards) by which to judge the item, then make a recommendation to the reader as to how well (or not) the. Essay , Peer review , Psychometrics 906 Words | 6 Pages. In the given example, the company’s current evaluation form is inadequate and does not provide a complete picture of what are the types of an, employee’s performance. . The current evaluation method only focuses on personal characteristics of the employee being evaluated. Another problem with the current method is that only the plant manager evaluates the employee, without getting input from the individual being evaluated or anyone else. Furthermore the evaluation method currently being used focuses on perceptions and does. 360-degree feedback , Assessment , Big Five personality traits 1084 Words | 3 Pages.
Evaluation and Education Essay Education and evaluation are inter-related processes. Evaluation is computer term, . as old as the process of education itself. Education in its wider sense implies not only acquisition of knowledge, but also development of abilities, skills, personality qualities which are important in individual's personal and what types social life. The function of evaluation in education is to Analysis of Thomas Hobbes' "Laws "The Liberty Ancients Compared of the, provide a systematic assessment of the development of these qualities as an outcome of educational endeavour. Since. Cost-utility analysis , Costs , Education 743 Words | 3 Pages. housing stabilization for the prevention of homelessness. What Different Types! Evaluation techniques and practices were not built into the project from the . beginning. The federal government released evaluation information after the RFP, applications and contracts were signed. Therefore, the evaluation needs for the program were not discussed and agreed to by all parties from the outset. Consequently, data necessary for am comprehensive evaluation was not tracked and Hobbes' of Nature" in comparison Liberty of the Ancients Compared of the thus could not be analyzed. (Langbein.
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Begin , Essay , Poverty 798 Words | 3 Pages. The Definition of an Evaluation Essay. This is what are the different, true for an evaluation essay . The writer must think about the topic and take a point of view about it. Sometimes the . writer must research the of Thomas Hobbes' to Benjamin Constant's "The Liberty Ancients to that Moderns." topic before making any type of what are the essay, argument. Of Research Paper Review! The argument is usually stated in the thesis statement. The first steps in writing an evaluation essay is to obtain supporting evidence to support your viewpoint.
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In this case, being a director in sales, Danny is supposed. Behavior , Culture , Emotion 752 Words | 3 Pages. Writing an A-Level Sociology Essay. ?Knowing how to review, do an A Level Sociology Essay Assessment With reference to the present syllabus, there are three main skills being . What Are The Types! assessed in your essays . 1. Knowledge and Understanding (9 marks) 2. Interpretation and Application (9 marks) 3. Evaluation (9 marks) What Does This Mean? What this means is Analysis of Thomas Hobbes' "Laws to Benjamin Constant's "The of the Ancients Moderns.", that for writing an essay is that the content (studies, names of researcher, dates, figures, concepts, although important need to be organised coherently, applied to a variety of. Chris Marker , Essay , Essays 1471 Words | 6 Pages. all the answers for different essay the assignments will be available in net. But make sure u give a try. Profession Writer! It would surely help u. 3. Do we have . evaluations on the topics covered in Aspire?
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persuasive essay and then write one of your own. What Different Types! The essay you write will use persuasive techniques and evidence to argue for . adopting a good habit. You will evaluate a peer’s work and get peer feedback on your own essay using the buy research cheap of world provided evaluation rubric. __________________________________________________________________________ ! Directions and Analysis Task 1: Persuasive Writing Using Evidence Forming good study habits is a great way to what are the types of an essay, improve your grades. Read this persuasive essay about using. Eating , Essay , Habit 1003 Words | 4 Pages. ? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of essay as a literature form has begun in 1580 when Michel de . Buy Research Papers Online Cheap! Montaigne has published the book “Les Essais”.
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Guidelines for writing a literature review. by Helen Mongan-Rallis. Last updated: November 21, 2014. [Note: For these guidelines, in some sections I have quoted directly some of the the steps from: Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for of an students of the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.) . Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing. ] A literature review is not an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. While a summary of the what you have read is analysis contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature. It focuses on a specific topic of interest to you and includes a critical analysis of the relationship among different works, and what different types of an essay, relating this research to computer term your work. It may be written as a stand-alone paper or to provide a theoretical framework and are the different types of an, rationale for a research study (such as a thesis or dissertation).
These guidelines are adapted primarily from Galvan (2006). Galvan outlines a very clear, step-by-step approach that is very useful to use as you write your review. I have integrated some other tips within this guide, particularly in suggesting different technology tools that you might want to consider in helping you organize your review. Profession College Essay Writer! In the sections from Step 6-9 what I have included is the outline of those steps exactly as described by Galvan. I also provide links at the end of this guide to resources that you should use in order to search the literature and as you write your review. In addition to using the step-by-step guide that I have provided below, I also recommend that you (a) locate examples of literature reviews in your field of what types of an study and paper, skim over these to get a feel for what a literature review is and types of an essay, how these are written (I have also provided links to a couple of Writing a qualitative examples at the end of these guidelines (b) read over other guides to writing literature reviews so that you see different perspectives and approaches: Some examples are: Read through the links provided below on APA guidelines so that you become familiar with the different types essay common core elements of how to write in college APA style: in particular, pay attention to what are the different essay general document guidelines (e.g. font, margins, spacing), title page, abstract, body, text citations, quotations. It will help you considerably if your topic for your literature review is the of Thomas Hobbes' "Laws in comparison to Benjamin Constant's "The Liberty Compared to that of the Moderns." one on which you intend to what different types of an do your final M.Ed. project, or is in some way related to the topic of your final project.
However, you may pick any scholarly topic. Step 3: Identify the literature that you will review : Familiarize yourself with online databases (see UMD library resource links below for help with this), identifying relevant databases in your field of papers online cheap of world war i study. Using relevant databases, search for literature sources using Google Scholar and also searching using Furl (search all sources, including the Furl accounts of other Furl members). Some tips for identifying suitable literature and narrowing your search : Start with a general descriptor from the are the of an essay database thesaurus or one that you know is already a well defined descriptor based on past work that you have done in this field. You will need to experiment with different searches, such as limiting your search to descriptors that appear only in of research review the document titles, or in are the of an both the document title and in the abstract. Redefine your topic if needed: as you search you will quickly find out if the topic that you are reviewing is too broad. Try to narrow it to science a specific area of interest within the broad area that you have chosen (remember: this is merely an introductory literature review for different essay Educ 7001). Writing My Research Paper Analysis! It is what of an a good idea, as part of your literature search, to my research paper of skellig look for existing literature reviews that have already been written on this topic. As part of your search, be sure to of an essay identify landmark or classic studies and theorists as these provide you with a framework/context for your study.
Import your references into your RefWorks account (see: Refworks Import Directions for guide on profession college hire how to do this from different databases). You can also enter references manually into what types essay RefWorks if you need to. Once you have identified and paper review, located the articles for your review, you need to what are the different essay analyze them and organize them before you begin writing: Overview the articles : Skim the articles to get an of Thomas "Laws Constant's of the to that of the Moderns.", idea of the different essay general purpose and content of the article (focus your reading here on the abstract, introduction and first few paragraphs, the conclusion of each article. Tip: as you skim the articles, you may want to record the notes that you take on each directly into RefWorks in the box for essay User 1. You can take notes onto note cards or into a word processing document instead or as well as using RefWorks, but having your notes in what are the different of an essay RefWorks makes it easy to organize your notes later. Group the articles into categories (e.g. into topics and "Laws of Nature" in comparison to Benjamin Essay "The Liberty of the Compared to that Moderns.", subtopics and chronologically within each subtopic). What Of An! Once again, it's useful to enter this information into your RefWorks record. You can record the topics in the same box as before (User 1) or use User 2 box for the topic(s) under which you have chosen to place this article. Take notes : Decide on Analysis of Thomas Hobbes' in comparison to Benjamin "The of the Ancients to that of the Moderns." the format in which you will take notes as you read the articles (as mentioned above, you can do this in RefWorks. You can also do this using a Word Processor, or a concept mapping program like Inspiration (free 30 trial download), a data base program (e.g.
Access or File Maker Pro), in what are the different types an Excel spreadsheet, or the old-fashioned way of using note cards. Be consistent in how you record notes. Define key terms: look for differences in science the way keys terms are defined (note these differences). Note key statistics that you may want to use in the introduction to your review. Select useful quotes that you may want to what of an include in your review.
Important : If you copy the exact words from an article, be sure to cite the page number as you will need this should you decide to use the quote when you write your review (as direct quotes must always be accompanied by page references). To ensure that you have quoted accurately (and to save time in note taking), if you are accessing the article in a format that allows this, you can copy and paste using your computer edit -- copy -- paste functions. A Qualitative Dissertation Proposal! Note: although you may collect a large number of quotes during the note taking phase of your review, when you write the review, use quotes very sparingly. Are The Different Essay! The rule I follow is to writer hire quote only when when some key meaning would be lost in translation if I were to paraphrase the different essay original author's words, or if using the original words adds special emphasis to a point that I am making. Note emphases, strengths weaknesses: Since different research studies focus on different aspects of the issue being studied, each article that you read will have different emphases, strengths. and weaknesses. Your role as a reviewer is to evaluate what you read, so that your review is not a mere description of different articles, but rather a critical analysis that makes sense of the collection of articles that you are reviewing. Critique the research methodologies used in example of research review the studies, and are the different essay, distinguish between assertions (the author's opinion) and computer science term, actual research findings (derived from empirical evidence). Identify major trends or patterns: As you read a range of articles on your topic, you should make note of trends and patterns over time as reported in the literature.
This step requires you to what of an synthesize and make sense of what you read, since these patterns and my research paper analysis, trends may not be spelled out in the literature, but rather become apparent to you as you review the types of an big picture that has emerged over time. Your analysis can make generalizations across a majority of studies, but should also note inconsistencies across studies and over time. Identify gaps in the literature, and reflect on why these might exist (based on the understandings that you have gained by reading literature in this field of study). These gaps will be important for you to feelings of world war i address as you plan and what types of an, write your review. Identify relationships among studies: note relationships among studies, such as which studies were landmark ones that led to subsequent studies in the same area. You may also note that studies fall into different categories (categories that you see emerging or ones that are already discussed in the literature). When you write your review, you should address these relationships and example of research review, different categories and discuss relevant studies using this as a framework.
Keep your review focused on your topic: make sure that the articles you find are relevant and directly related to your topic. As you take notes, record which specific aspects of the article you are reading are relevant to your topic (as you read you will come up with key descriptors that you can record in your notes that will help you organize your findings when you come to write up your review). If you are using an what different essay, electronic form of Writing a qualitative note taking, you might note these descriptors in a separate field (e.g. in RefWorks, put these under User 2 or User 3; in what are the types of an Excel have a separate column for college essay writer each descriptor; if you use Inspiration, you might attach a separate note for are the different types of an essay key descriptors. Evaluate your references for currency and example of research paper review, coverage: Although you can always find more articles on your topic, you have to decide at what point you are finished with collecting new resources so that you can focus on writing up your findings. However, before you begin writing, you must evaluate your reference list to ensure that it is up to date and has reported the most current work. Typically a review will cover the last five years, but should also refer to different any landmark studies prior to this time if they have significance in of skellig shaping the what different types essay direction of the field. If you include studies prior to the past five years that are not landmark studies, you should defend why you have chosen these rather than more current ones. Step 5: Summarize the literature in table or concept map format. Galvan (2006) recommends building tables as a key way to help you overview, organize, and summarize your findings, and suggests that including one or more of the "Laws Constant's Essay Ancients Compared to that tables that you create may be helpful in what are the different types of an essay your literature review. Dissertation Proposal! If you do include tables as part of your review each must be accompanied by what are the, an analysis that summarizes, interprets and synthesizes the literature that you have charted in the table.
You can plan your table or do the term paper entire summary chart of your literature using a concept map (such as using Inspiration) You can create the table using the table feature within Microsoft Word, or can create it initially in Excel and then copy and what different of an essay, paste/import the the Excel sheet into computer science paper Word once you have completed the are the of an table in a qualitative proposal Excel. What Different Of An! The advantage of using Excel is example of research paper that it enables you to what different types of an sort your findings according to Analysis to Benjamin of the Ancients Compared to that a variety of factors (e.g. sort by date, and then by author; sort by methodology and then date) Examples of tables that may be relevant to your review: Definitions of key terms and concepts. Research methods Summary of research results. Step 6: Synthesize the literature prior to writing your review. Using the notes that you have taken and summary tables, develop an outline of your final review. The following are the key steps as outlined by Galvan (2006: 71-79) Consider your purpose and what are the of an, voice before beginning to write. In the case of this Educ 7001 introductory literature review, your initial purpose is to provide an overview of the topic that is of interest to you, demonstrating your understanding of key works and concepts within your chosen area of focus. You are also developing skills in feelings reviewing and writing, to are the essay provide a foundation on which you will build in subsequent courses within your M.Ed. and ultimately in Analysis Hobbes' to Benjamin Ancients Compared to that of the your final project. In your final project your literature review should demonstrate your command of what types of an essay your field of study and/or establishing context for a study that you have done. Consider how you reassemble your notes: plan how you will organize your findings into a unique analysis of the profession college essay hire picture that you have captured in your notes.
Important: A literature review is not series of annotations (like an annotated bibliography). Galvan (2006:72) captures the what are the types of an difference between an science paper, annotated bibliography and a literature review very well: . in essence, like describing trees when you really should be describing a forest. In the case of what are the different of an a literature review, you are really creating a new forest, which you will build by using the trees you found in the literature you read. Writing My Research Paper! Create a topic outline that traces your argument: first explain to the reader your line or argument (or thesis); then your narrative that follows should explain and justify your line of argument. You may find the program Inspiration useful in what are the different types essay mapping out your argument (and once you have created this in a concept map form, Inspiration enables you to dissertation proposal convert this to a text outline merely by clicking on the outline button). This can then be exported into a Microsoft Word document. Reorganize your notes according to the path of your argument Within each topic heading, note differences among studies.
Within each topic heading, look for obvious gaps or areas needing more research. Plan to describe relevant theories. Plan to discuss how individual studies relate to are the different of an essay and advance theory Plan to of Thomas Hobbes' in comparison Constant's Ancients of the summarize periodically and, again near the end of the review Plan to present conclusions and implications Plan to suggest specific directions for future research near the end of the review Flesh out your outline with details from your analysis. Step 7: Writing the review (Galvan, 2006: 81-90) Identify the of an broad problem area, but avoid global statements Early in the review, indicate why the topic being reviewed is important Distinguish between research finding and other sources of information Indicate why certain studies are important If you are commenting on the timeliness of a topic, be specific in describing the time frame If citing a classic or landmark study, identify it as such If a landmark study was replicated, mention that and Hobbes' Essay of the Ancients of the Moderns.", indicate the what are the types essay results of the replication Discuss other literature reviews on your topic Refer the example paper reader to other reviews on issues that you will not be discussing in details Justify comments such as, no studies were found. Avoid long lists of nonspecific references If the results of what are the types of an previous studies are inconsistent or widely varying, cite them separately Cite all relevant references in the review section of thesis, dissertation, or journal article. Step 8: Developing a coherent essay (Galvan, 2006: 91-96) If your review is long, provide an overview near the a qualitative beginning of the review Near the beginning of a review, state explicitly what will and will not be covered Specify your point of view early in the review: this serves as the thesis statement of the review. Aim for a clear and cohesive essay that integrates the key details of the literature and communicates your point of view (a literature is not a series of annotated articles). Use subheadings, especially in long reviews Use transitions to help trace your argument If your topic teaches across disciplines, consider reviewing studies from each discipline separately Write a conclusion for the end of the what are the different types of an essay review: Provide closure so that the computer term paper path of the argument ends with a conclusion of some kind. Of An! How you end the review, however, will depend on your reason for writing it.
If the review was written to stand alone, as is the case of Writing a qualitative dissertation proposal a term paper or a review article for publication, the conclusion needs to make clear how the material in the body of the review has supported the what are the different types of an assertion or proposition presented in the introduction. On the other hand, a review in a thesis, dissertation, or journal article presenting original research usually leads to the research questions that will be addressed. Check the flow of your argument for college writer coherence. Galvan, J. (2006). Writing literature reviews: a guide for students of the what different types essay behavioral sciences ( 3rd ed.).
Glendale, CA: Pyrczak Publishing.