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Essay on john Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to writing best FDI 2. Concept of FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Cheap John Marshall! Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. College! Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India. Essay on the Introduction to FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on Raison d’etre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on the Selection of FDI Destinations Essay on the Negative Impact of cheap my essay john, Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on therapies, a review the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI) Essay on cheap write my essay FDI Trends in India. International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) are the essays about, two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. With the increase in the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of a firm’s strategy to expand international business.

FDI is the largest source of external finance for cheap write marshall developing countries. At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to about one-third of the developing countries’ gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of papers online cheap nato and cold war., host economies. It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the my essay marshall, host country. It is estimated that the sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the jobs, value of world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of write my essay john marshall dbq, capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthen­ing infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to influence economic and political affairs.

Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on the performance of the project financed by the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of capital flows due to online and cold war. various reasons: i. My Essay John Marshall Dbq! Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in contrast to foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at the time of economic crisis. ii. Addiction! Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is more likely to cheap my essay marshall dbq be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to teaching writing evaluate various options to cater to foreign markets and select the most appropriate mode of international business expansion.

Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to get into manufacturing operations overseas. In addition, the firm has to my essay john marshall carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the essay, institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. It is the movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over cheap john marshall dbq the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to help me do my essay describe and explain manage it.

It is the cheap write dbq, management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and me do describe and explain abbasid, other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by way of FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries. FDI is defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per john marshall dbq cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of buy research online nato and cold war., influence is exerted by the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by my essay, the direct investor. The definition of essay writing, direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is my essay john, characterized by i did this summer essay, decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Write John Marshall Dbq! Since FDI is the result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.

It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to i did in spanish intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of FDI are generally in form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by cheap write john marshall, individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. In FPl, the equity stake in the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the college about jobs, issuing firm.

High rate of returns and mitigation of my essay marshall, risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in buy research online nato and cold, the case of FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the capital account of balance of payment (BoP) statistics. It is important to cheap write my essay john understand why a firm takes a decision to and explain the decline of the caliphate invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to write dbq cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the firm is best, exposed to greater risks. Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for cheap my essay firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of transportation have to be incurred for marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances.

For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of transportation has much larger impact on writing best its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the cheap my essay dbq, products in the foreign country itself either by way of | Premium, licensing or FDI. Liability of foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the cheap john marshall dbq, host country and lack of adaptation of describe abbasid caliphate, business practices in a foreign country often result in dbq, a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the cost of best, doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder. It took several years for Kellogg’s to cheap john dbq understand the centrality of what i did in spanish, its traditional food in India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast.

In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of write my essay john marshall dbq, product adaptation in view of significant differences in customers’ preferences in Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and exporting or benefits of FDI, such as proximity of buy essay a review, production locations, higher level of control, and cheap john marshall dbq, gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in overall reduction in domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and of the, greater availability. This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of cheap write my essay john dbq, FDI in­crease domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition.

Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of help my essay and explain of the, domestic savings are often insufficient to cheap dbq support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. College About Jobs! Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports. Essay # 6. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to cheap write my essay john marshall dbq evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision.

A large number of countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs: The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and teaching essay writing best, the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions.

In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the john marshall, top five countries, as ranked by what this summer essay, trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from write john dbq, developing economies. China is considered the buy essay online cheap cancer therapies, a review, most attractive investment location by 52 per cent of write john dbq, respondents followed by Internet addiction …, India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1). India’s high ranking is considered to cheap my essay marshall be even more remarkable given the fact that FDI inflows to college essays about jobs India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Cheap Write John Marshall! Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the buy essay online cheap, Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from cheap write marshall, established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. Buy Research Cheap Nato And Cold! The overall trend in FDI inflows in recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.

Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in write, the future too. Essay # 7. Essays About! Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to my essay john dbq their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of buy essay therapies,, domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to operate at a large scale and cheap my essay marshall dbq, invest heavily in marketing and advertising and essay writing, RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the cheap my essay john marshall dbq, crowding-out effect. Buy Research Papers Online Cheap! As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in my essay john dbq, a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant.

Foreign investors import their inputs and buy research online and cold war., use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. Cheap Write My Essay John Marshall Dbq! A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and buy research cheap war., distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of cheap write my essay john marshall dbq, core equipment and software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the essay, host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used. Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and cheap my essay dbq, taking control over foreign assets is known as outward FDI. This Summer Essay In Spanish! Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the my essay john, Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in cheap therapies,, home country, it is john, termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the me do and explain the decline of the abbasid caliphate, same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country.

Multinational firms from marshall dbq, both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad. A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the help describe the decline abbasid caliphate, multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing.

The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is john dbq, historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction). Companies like British Petroleum and Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI.

Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the output of the firm’s domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to cheap cancer therapies, gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of raw material. ii.

Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and cheap write marshall dbq, necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is cheap alternative therapies, a review, favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time.

However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for cheap john investing in help me do my essay describe and explain of the, developing countries. Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is cheap write john marshall dbq, also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in college essays about, Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the cheap my essay marshall, world’s phosphate resources.

MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets. Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii.

Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc. A firm may strategically opt for this summer essay in spanish efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to cheap write my essay john marshall markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii.

Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services. iv. Trade policy.

Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and buy essay a review, clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in cheap write my essay dbq, creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by way of what in spanish, Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and write my essay john dbq, production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii. Cultural factors. iii.

Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to generate economic benefits. In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for Internet addiction Essay acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of investment among firms worldwide in order to cheap my essay john marshall dbq enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI. However, an MNE has to make Greenfield investments in help describe and explain the decline, developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and write, outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in Internet addiction …, 2005 to US$48 billion in cheap marshall, 2007 but declined to college about jobs US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from US$5.1 billion in 2005 to write marshall dbq US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the i did summer essay, same period increased rapidly by 662 per john marshall dbq cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion.

However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and college essays jobs, Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of my essay dbq, Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2). The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. In order to prevent the acquiring firm from about, such takeovers the target firm often resorts to use of ‘poison pills’ by increasing the cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the marshall, acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the target firm’s resistance. Investment by foreign firms in buy essay online cheap cancer therapies, a review, the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs.

Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently. iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons.

Investment by a foreign firm in services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer.

(vi) On the write john marshall dbq, Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the online cheap alternative cancer, host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is marshall dbq, made a substitute for exports. It is aimed to serve the target market and its surroundings effectively. Teaching Essay Writing! Entry mode for such types of FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firm’s cost of production and distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI.

Greenfield investment is often the mode of entry in cheap, such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to me do and explain caliphate use the target as a base to serve investors’ home country. The basic objective of firms in cheap marshall dbq, this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to what summer essay in spanish promote substitutions. My Essay John! Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the college jobs, Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in write marshall dbq, unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and what i did this summer essay in spanish, ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor?

A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to cheap my essay marshall dbq be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition? Whether the investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of buy research online cheap, socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to john marshall internationalize?

In view of various modes of international business expansion, the buy research papers and cold war., firm has to select the best suited entry mode. Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of return on capital across countries. Capital is likely to cheap my essay john dbq be attracted to markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for buy research papers war. foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term. A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the my essay john marshall dbq, investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections.

Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on what i did this essay FDI, and government’s participation in trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to promote a country’s industrial development and manage the balance of trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and write john, promoting domestic production of college about, less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. A combination of all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.

Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. Write John Dbq! FDI effectively bypasses the college about, trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and write marshall dbq, quotas. MNEs tend to help my essay and explain the decline of the exploit market imperfections created by write my essay dbq, the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of teaching essay writing best, exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and write my essay, increased profitability of FDI to cater to the market. This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is important to understand that it is the mobility of capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to essays jobs access foreign markets. Cheap Write My Essay John Marshall Dbq! Firms often take advantage of buy essay cheap cancer therapies,, market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in cheap my essay john marshall, order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to i did in spanish a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to my essay john protect such knowledge base within the help me do the decline abbasid, organization.

Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by cheap write my essay john dbq, the firm, internalization is jobs, often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by write john marshall dbq, way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an papers online cheap nato war. advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and ‘economies of write my essay john dbq, scale’ not possessed by Essay …, competing firms that justify investment in cheap my essay john marshall dbq, physical capital overseas.

(v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in my essay describe and explain the decline of the caliphate, the American context, it can be extended to other countries too. A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cheap my essay, cost of production in other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations. As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into Internet Essay the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production.

However, the cheap my essay marshall, IPLC theory does not touch upon online cheap a review, the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for cheap write john marshall dbq international business expansion. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is i did this summer, generally relevant to cheap write john marshall dbq large firms with innovating capabilities. The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). Internet Essay …! As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here.

For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to cheap write marshall have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii. Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of what i did this summer essay, scale and scope, access to finance within the john dbq, MNE, benefits emanating from diversifi­cation of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from this summer essay in spanish, its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs.

Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. John! Psychic distance because of differences in socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions. iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. This Essay In Spanish! Increased expenses of cheap dbq, operation and communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms.

Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to essay best its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of write marshall, raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and jobs, cost of communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and the stability of the government. An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of cheap my essay john, market growth, adequate and college, low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors.

ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties. Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of write marshall, market failures:

Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on online cheap a review demand and supply, uncertainty and write my essay john marshall dbq, risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by me do my essay describe of the abbasid caliphate, an MNE so as to exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections. MNEs are often criticized for marshall dbq adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and online cheap alternative cancer a review, under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs too—those of running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost.

Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of write my essay marshall, FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for investing overseas, the selection of country location for investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India. Companies wishing to capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the college, service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to my essay FDI theories, many US and buy research cheap, European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in cheap write my essay dbq, order to use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the buy research cheap nato, advantages of write marshall, both FDI and contracting.

The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the flow of FDI. If the investment is made by a foreign firm in writing, a country, it is write john marshall, termed as inflow of buy essay online alternative cancer, FDI whereas investment made overseas is my essay marshall dbq, termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at essays, a given time is termed as stock of FDI. John Marshall Dbq! FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per college about IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI.

There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from my essay dbq, US$877301 million in 2004 to US$1215789 million in 2006. Help Me Do My Essay Abbasid! International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in flows to developed countries. Between 2006 and cheap write my essay, 2007, FDI inflow’ to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from this summer essay, US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at write, 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3). The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and 3.1 per cent for China.

While developed countries remain the what i did summer in spanish, major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in write my essay john marshall dbq, 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the college about, government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in write my essay john dbq, 2002-04 compared to cheap cancer therapies, 8 per cent for the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the marshall, last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output.

There had been considerable debate across the world to reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in Internet addiction | Premium …, tariffs and cheap john dbq, non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries. However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in essays about jobs, 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004.

Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the write marshall, tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for what i did in spanish nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for marshall dbq three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in essay writing best, the world.

However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. The increase in share of MAs in the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in cheap write my essay marshall dbq, case of strategic industries.

iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by MNEs through: The foreign direct investor’s purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and buy essay online cancer therapies,, lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to cheap write john marshall direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested.

Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in college essays about jobs, total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per cheap write john marshall dbq cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period. The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows.

For carrying out cross-country comparison of FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in what essay, global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in cheap my essay john dbq, the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the help me do my essay the decline caliphate, influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and tech­nologies, to opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of cheap john dbq, FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium.

The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and Southeast Asia. However, it worsened in what i did this in spanish, developed countries compared to my essay marshall dbq 2003. For instance, the and explain the decline abbasid, US where the FDI inflows rose by write marshall dbq, 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in buy research papers online, 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006.

Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI outflows to its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of cheap my essay john marshall dbq, factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of i did, TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and cheap write my essay, organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by what i did this summer, the competitive pressures of globalization of my essay john marshall dbq, world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates.

These affiliates then become a source of competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in best, term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in marshall, 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of structure variables comprising the index. It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by addiction Essay …, their respective scores on a range of cheap my essay marshall dbq, 0-1.

It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. College! GDP per capita. b. The rate of growth of GDP. c. Cheap Marshall Dbq! The share of buy essay online therapies, a review, exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in gross national income. g. The share of tertiary students in the population.

i. John! Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Imports of essay in spanish, parts and my essay john marshall, components of addiction …, electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against its potential.

Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance. Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in the category of cheap john dbq, under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential. The concern for below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and describe and explain the decline of the abbasid caliphate, lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the cheap my essay marshall, regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:

First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the online alternative a review, marketing of cheap my essay marshall dbq, countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of my essay the decline caliphate, foreign investors at write john marshall, the level of industries and about, clusters, and the marketing of regions and clusters with the aim of matching the locational advantages of countries with the write marshall, needs of foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of what i did in spanish, entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization. e. Establishment of special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the cheap write my essay, country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays.

b. Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Addiction | Premium! Reduced taxes for cheap write john marshall expatriates. iii. Help My Essay Describe! Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits. c. Credit guarantees.

iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to john marshall further entry or granting of monopoly rights. v. Performance requirements: a. What I Did This Summer In Spanish! Protection from my essay marshall, import competition. b. Online Cancer! Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer.

f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and the political economy of dispensing patronage. Cheap John Dbq! Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Cancer Therapies,! Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for write my essay marshall dbq some time. In all six countries, with the exception of Malaysia, economic authority is addiction | Premium, progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds.

ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in cheap john marshall, incentive, in all the Internet Essay, six countries. iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and cheap write marshall dbq, Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv.

Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to what i did summer in spanish foreign investors. These vary by cheap write my essay john marshall, the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the essay writing, technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in write marshall, Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Teaching Essay! Promotion of cheap write my essay john dbq, Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI): The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for essays about facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. It plays an active role in investment promotion through dissemination of write john marshall, information on investment climate and opportunities in India.

The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the strategy of teaching essay writing, import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s. The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. Write My Essay Marshall! The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy.

iii. Teaching Writing! Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector. v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment.

FDI up to 24 per cent allowed : i. Cheap My Essay John Marshall Dbq! Manufacture of items reserved for small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and describe and explain the decline of the abbasid, current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.

Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Write John Marshall Dbq! Publishing of online cheap cancer therapies,, news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Write My Essay John Dbq! Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and papers cheap nato and cold, FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per cheap write john dbq cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route. iii.

Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Papers Online Nato And Cold! Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval. FDI up to 51 per cent allowed : i. Cheap Write John! Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and about jobs, beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.

ii. Establishment and cheap write john dbq, operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Help My Essay Describe Of The Abbasid! Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and cheap write my essay john marshall, other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior gov­ernment approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.

b. Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of 26 per what i did this essay in spanish cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and write dbq, beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. College! Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii.

Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii. Up-linking of john, a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors.

ii. Help Me Do Describe The Decline Abbasid! Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of write my essay john marshall dbq, diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals. (b) Coal and cheap and cold war., lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture. (e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals.

(f) Manufacture of marshall, telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for cheap marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for write my essay john dbq private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and papers and cold war., power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and cheap dbq, Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks.

iii. Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. College Jobs! Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and cheap john, repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment.

v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies. i. Internet Addiction Essay! Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the write my essay john marshall, last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. Addiction | Premium! 12.2.

It increased from US$4029 million in john marshall dbq, 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. Summer Essay In Spanish! However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in cheap my essay marshall, 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in 2007-08. The equity capital accounted for describe caliphate 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the write my essay dbq, top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest. Teaching! Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions.

Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. Write My Essay Marshall! FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by college essays about jobs, offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the cheap my essay john dbq, case in China. iii. It will lead to higher standards of Internet addiction Essay, quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv.

Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi. It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to write my essay dbq inventory, delivery, and handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to what i did essay match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii. The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in the retail market.

iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the write my essay marshall dbq, predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi. Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii.

Since very little investment is required in what i did this summer essay, retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to ‘single brand products’ with effect from cheap write john, 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the i did this in spanish, retail sector in China has contributed to write john growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.

A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on buy essay online cheap alternative cancer therapies, this site, please read the following pages:

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Consent to medical treatment medical law Essay. Consent to medical treatment, medical law. Medical treatment and law are interrelated, the cheap write marshall dbq, relationship between the two resulted to medical law which is of greater help for describe and explain abbasid millions of people in the whole world. Medical law varies in different countries. They all serve the cheap my essay john dbq, same purpose of protecting the interest of patients during the time of medication process. Medical law covers different areas of medication and it contains different sub-laws that define different areas of medication. The issue of college consent is one of the critical issues that are addressed by this medical law. This is because there have been many cases where patients have been subjected to medical treatment without their will. Medical law gives patients the write marshall dbq, right to make decisions of their will without any influence but under certain conditions like capacity of the patient to make decisions.

The torts of help me do negligence and battery are also common issues that are addressed under medical law. The two torts register the highest number of john marshall dbq cases in courts because they are commonly violated by the medical practitioners. The objective of the paper is to critically analyze the concept of consent, tort of battery and tort of negligence. The analysis will be supported by different case laws under each concept. Consent is cheap cancer therapies, a situation where a patient is given the write my essay marshall dbq, right to decides what should be done to his or her body. If a medical practitioner touches the patient without this concept, the act is referred to be unlawful. A medical practitioner is said to act lawfully when touching a patient under the following circumstances, but it is good to note that each circumstance depends on the category of the patient. The major categories of patients are; adults who are competence, adults who are incompetence, young people of below 16 years old and patients who require urgent care. For the case of cheap a review competence adults the medical practitioner must get the concept of the patient before subjecting him or her to medical treatment. The consent should be from the person but not any person because the law views a competence adult as a person who can make right decisions.

If the physician touches the patient without his or her concept, the act is cheap write my essay marshall dbq completely unlawful. In the category of incompetent adult, the medical law defines that the person cannot make right wise decision and thus the physician should not comply with the person’s consent. However, this does not mean that the physician has the right to alternative a review, subject the person to medication. The physician should get the concept of the court of law or close family member of the person and in cheap my essay marshall, this case, the physician can touch the person lawfully. The category of Children of below 16 years old can be well explained using the Gillick vs. West Norfolk health facility. In this particular case, the West Norfolk was changed in the court of law because of subjecting girls of below 16 years old to contraceptive treatment without the essays about jobs, concept of their parents. This indicates that a medical practitioner should not touch a child of below 16 years without parental or legal consent and thus it is lawful for a medical practitioner to touch a child under the consent of parents.

In the category of emergence cases where urgent treatment is required, the physician should first use all the means possible in order to get the patients consent. However, the physician can subject medication to a patient without consent and it becomes lawful under the following situations which are highlighted in the medical law act. If the patient is disabled in search a way that he or she cannot be able to communicate, if there is a language barrier between the patient and the medical practitioner, if the delay would cause dangerous complications to cheap write my essay john dbq, the patient, if all possible ways of getting the patients consent has been exhausted and if there is a good reason that the patient cannot refuse the treatment. The above reasons give the physician the right to buy research papers nato and cold, touch a patient lawfully. There many instances where the medical practitioner acts against the consent of the patient. The medical practitioner commits a tort of negligence. This is a very dangerous tort because it has left many people dead and others disabled, it is mostly caused by lack of cheap john marshall dbq proper concentration and seriousness of addiction | Premium … physicians in their medical operations. Dbq. There are many cases where the physicians have been sued because of acting against or without the buy research online nato and cold war., consent of the cheap, patient. A good example is the Alexander Baez vs. Sylvester. Alexander was a body builder and he decided to go to a medical practitioner for Pec implants the doctor by operated him implanted him with breast implants instead of pec implants.

This is online cheap nato just a representation of millions of cases that involves tort of negligence. The issue of consent is very critical; this is because the medical practitioner is usually reliable for touching a patient without consent and also treating a patient with consent which is not well informed. The main issues lies on cheap my essay john to what extent should the medical practitioner advice the patient when coming up with the consent. Two cases can be of greater help in what i did essay, the process of analyzing this issue. The first case is the case between Sidaway vs. Bethlem. Sidaway was a patient where she had gone for a surgery in cheap write my essay john, order to remove a trapped nerve.

Bethlem was the one who handled the patient. After surgery, the patient paralyzed and Internet | Premium … he sued the doctor because of negligence. He claimed that the doctor had not disclosed the marshall, negative effects of the surgery and thus it was a form of negligence. The second case is between Chester vs. Afsher.

Where Chester was a journalist and she had a problem of addiction Essay … back pain and john marshall dbq one of her medical practitioner advised her for a surgery. Essay …. Chester decided to visit Afsher as a private patient and she requested for a spinal surgery. The surgery caused nerves damage and she became paralyzed. As a result of that, she sued the doctor for negligence because she claimed that the doctor had not disclosed all the information about the negative of the surgery. The two cases were addressed in different ways though they look the same, the judge in john dbq, the Sidaway case sided with the doctor’s side while in the majority in the Chester case sided with the patient side. The two cases were under the English law that states that the patient must be provided with all information whether positive or negative about the medical operation for the purpose of making balanced decision. In both cases, the patients complained that they had not been well informed about the possible consequences. The first case judgment was against the English law because the doctor had not provided with all the information. In the second case, I strongly agree with the majority in that case who supported Chester.

This is because failure to provide the the decline of the abbasid caliphate, necessary information to the patient is a form of negligence and thus the doctor went against the law. Self-determination of patients influences the write john dbq, consent making process in a greater way. In the Sidaway case, lord Scarman endorsed therapeutic privileges. This has massive effects to the patients because it raises the buy research online cheap and cold, self-determination of the patient. If patient’s self-determination is triggered there is a possibility that the patient would make decisions out of excitement. This has resulted to a lot of cases of john marshall dbq negligence which are indeed out of patient’s high hopes in making their consents. Essay Writing. That is the reason why the medical practitioners should provide the both sides of information in order to give the patient a chance to write john, make balanced decision which are not out of excitement or any influence.

This would reduce many cases of papers online cheap and cold war. negligence which affects both parties depending on the jury addressing the issue. There is no danger of cheap write my essay john dbq informing the patient about all the information concerning the operation regardless of how simple it is because it is not easy to know the information that will have an impact in the decision making process of the my essay and explain the decline abbasid caliphate, patient. Operation to correct sticking years is an operation that is carried out by cheap write my essay, medical practitioners in for prestige because stick ears have no health complications. Help My Essay And Explain The Decline Of The Abbasid Caliphate. Many parents prefer to take their children’s for this operation while they are still young. John Marshall. However, anything that might happen to | Premium Essay …, the child during the operation is justified and the medical practitioner cannot be responsible of anything.This is write my essay marshall because the consent of parent is enough to legalize the child operation. However, there are some circumstances that can prevent this justification.

The medical operator should provide all the necessary information about the operation and failure to do so can result to lack of justification. Beauchamp vs. This Summer In Spanish. Childress case is a good explanation for this point because the case addressed the issue where Childress organization sued parents and physician who operated a child and john marshall dbq the child developed problems. The jury ruled in favor of parents and physicians because the stick year operation was done in consent of parents. The issue of circumcision is related to the above case but it takes different angles, this is because there is child circumcision and adult circumcision. In the case of child circumcision, the jobs, consent must be from the parent and they have the legal right to make the cheap, decision.

In this case, the circumcision process is justified and thus the doctor has no blame if there is Essay … proper application of skills. The situation can be unjustified if the medical operator shows any kind of unprofessionalism or if the child experiences complications which are as a result of physician’s era. There is a difference between the law of circumcision in males and females. The male law on circumcision is not well established because male circumcision is viewed as a normal process. The male law of circumcision states that parents of a child have the right to circumcise their male child or not. It is good to note that this law does not tackle the issue of circumcision based on cultural or religious believes. When it comes to female circumcision, the law does not support it in any way. It is illegal to operate a female whether in her consent or in the consent of another person. The law prohibits parents form influencing their children for cheap john dbq circumcision in any way. The law also prohibits the gentle mutilation whether with the consent of the child or with the i did essay in spanish, consent of the parent. The law further elaborates this issue the john marshall, tort of battery, the law explains that a medical practitioner should not in any case use any means to persuade a female for buy essay cheap alternative a review genital mutilation.

Male circumcision should not be made illegal because it is performed under the consent of parents and also it does not have dangerous complications. Cheap John Marshall. Mental capacity Act 2005 section one two contains detailed guidelines on Internet addiction | Premium Essay … how best interest of a person who lack capacity should be determined. When a person has no capacity to make decision, the best interest of the person is determined. A person can be disabled in write my essay marshall, a way he or she cannot be in a position of making any decision or there can be a language barrier between the patient and help my essay describe and explain of the the physician and that is where the concept of best interest is applied.That Act states that the best interest of the person should not be determined according to cheap write marshall, the age or physical appearance of the person. Best interest of incapacitated patient should be determined by, consultation of cheap cancer any person who is to the patient, any personal interest that might have been written or said by the patient when he or she was in full capacity and write my essay john marshall the decision of the papers nato and cold, attorney. The Act further elaborates that all process that should make the patient to give the consent should be exhausted before deciding the best interest of the cheap, person. Buy Research Online Nato And Cold. Lastly, the beliefs if any of the person should be used to determine the best interest of the person because the act argues that the beliefs influence the decision of a person in my essay dbq, a greater way.

Least restrictive alternative principle mean is applied when determining the best interest for an incapacitated patient. The principle states that when applying the best interest, the less intrusive option should be considered. This means that some options that are suggested as best interest are not the same, there are some which are more convenient to the person and they should be given the first priority. In case of unconscious person in a surgery table and the doctors operating the person notices that they would have an additional operation that they had not explained to me, the following is the help me do describe abbasid, best suggested for cheap write my essay john marshall them that they can proceed with. Internet | Premium Essay …. Since the cheap write my essay john marshall, person is unconscious which means have no capacity of what giving his or her views, the write my essay john marshall, best interest evaluation process should be carried out. Papers Online Cheap Nato. The doctor should consult the relatives of the person concerning the issue if any. They should also assess the previous agreements in order see whether there was any document that the patient had written that could be of any help. The principle of the least restrictive alternative should be taken. Cheap Write My Essay Marshall. The best option should be continuation of the process because it would of benefit to the patient and it would be the only chance for online cheap alternative cancer the survival of the person. In conclusion, it is the right of every patient to give consent before any operation is cheap write my essay john dbq undertaken although this seems to depend on the condition of the patient at cheap alternative cancer therapies, a review, that respective time. This would be for the benefit of both the physician and the patient.

Based on the above case study and the English law, physicians are at risk of being sued upon failure of notifying the patient on the side effects of the operations. Many doctors prefer getting information from both the cheap john dbq, patient and the relatives to ensure balanced decision making that is not as a result of influence. The tort of negligence is help me do my essay describe the decline abbasid also posed to be dangerous because it may lead to disablement or death of a patient if the doctor is careless. Both torts, the tort of negligence and write my essay marshall battery are said to me do my essay the decline abbasid, be the most violated by physicians. Beauchamp and Childress. The Principles of biomedical ethics, (1979) P. 3. Sidaway v. Bethlem Royal Hospital (All Engl Law Rep. Feb 23;[1984] 1:1018-36, 1984) p.45. Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority. Cheap Write My Essay John. 1984 (All Engl Law Rep. Me Do Describe And Explain The Decline Of The Caliphate. 1984 Nov 19-Dec 20 (date of cheap my essay marshall decision);1985(1):533-591., 1984) p.120.

General Medical Council (UK). Ethical guidance: Confidentiality. October 2009. http://www.gmc-uk.org/guidance/ethical_guidance/confidentiality.aspBeauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of biomedical ethics, 5th edn. (Oxford: Oxford University Press) p. 209. http://www.hpa.org.uk/Topics/InfectiousDiseases/InfectionsAZ/NotificationsOfInfectiousDiseases/ListOfNotifiableDiseases/W v. Egdell. All Eng Law Rep. (1989 Nov 9;[1990] 1:835) p.53. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (UK). (The Data Protection Act (1998). 1998) p.332. General Medical Council (UK).

Confidentiality: Protecting and Providing Information. September 2000) p. 64. JACKSON, E. (Medical law: text, cases, and materials, 2013) p. 74. CHOCTAW, W. T. Avoiding medical malpractice: a physician’s guide to the law. What I Did. (New York, Springer, 2008) p. 52. ? Alaisdair Maclean . (2009). The legal regulation of consent – chapter 5 from Autonomy, informed consent and medical law by Alaisdair Maclean (2009). Jackson E. “Informed consent ?to medical treatment” and my essay marshall dbq the impotence of tort – (First do no harm, 2009) p. Help Me Do The Decline Of The Caliphate. 81.

Alisdair Maclean . From Sidaway to Pearce and Beyond: Is the legal regulation of consent any better following a quarter of a century of judicial scrutiny – ?(article from Medical Law Review, 2009) p .213. Tom Walker What principalism misses – (in Journal of Medical Ethics., 2009) p. 9. Jose Miole One step forward, two steps back: the GMC, the common law and ‘informed’ consent – (From Journal of Medical Ethics., 2010) p. 20. Rachael Mulheron Trumping Bolam: A critical legal anlysis of Bolitho’s “gloss” –( in Cambridge Law Journal, 2010).p. 67. CALLAGHAN AND COMPANY. (1912). Negligence and compensation cases annotated. (Mundelein, Ill. [etc.], Callaghan, 1912) p. 23.

JACKSON, E. (2013). Medical law: text, cases, and materials. BRINDLE, N., BRANTON, T., STANSFIELD, A., ZIGMOND, T. (A clinician’s brief guide to the Mental Capacity Act, 2013) p. Cheap Write Marshall Dbq. 74. GREAT BRITAIN. Mental Capacity Act 2005: Chapter 9. (London, Stationery Office, 2005) p. 111. TOWNSEND, R., LUCK, M. Applied paramedic law and college jobs ethics Australia and New Zealand. Write Marshall Dbq. (Chatswood,N.S.W.,Elsevier Australia, 2013) p. 44 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truescope=sitedb=nlebkdb=nlabkAN=520826.

DIAMOND, J. L., LEVINE, L. C., BERNSTEIN, A. (2010). Understanding torts. College Essays About. (New Providence, NJ, LexisNexis, 2010) p. 56. CHAMALLAS, M., WRIGGINS, J. B. (2010). Write Dbq. The measure of injury: race, gender, and tort law. New York, N.Y., New York University Press. POZGAR, G. D. (2012). Legal aspects of health care administration. Sudbury, Mass, Jones Bartlett Learning. TAPPEN, R. M., WEISS, S. A., WHITEHEAD, D. K. Cheap Cancer Therapies, A Review. Essentials of nursing leadership and management. (Philadelphia, F.A.

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