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They are consumers just as much as the older shoppers are, and online cheap like those shoppers, they embrace unhealthy foods, looking at online, cookies before finally deciding to buy the herring snacks. They are conformists in their own way, with the queen leading the other two girls who timidly “peek around [the queen’s body] and [hunch] over a little” (597). Buy Essay Cheap Arvind Mills? Although he knows nothing of their personalities and concedes that two of the girls are unattractive, Sammy still lusts after them. His sexual desire, then, is phobias just as greedy and overindulgent as the buy essay cheap arvind restructuring plan, shoppers’ desire for snack foods. Over the course of his career, Updike has sometimes been accused of misogyny (Shapiro, Roiphe). Based on his descriptions of the women in the story, Sammy certainly seems to have a misogynist worldview. He insinuates that the online broiler, young girls are catty exhibitionists, but the brunt of his contempt is reserved for older women. These middle-aged housewives, he suggests, are the engines of American consumerism, and he consistently belittles them, describing them as “houseslaves in buy essay mills restructuring plan, pin curlers” (598).
His account of the middle-aged woman at the beginning of “A P” is dehumanizing; he calls her a witch and compares her to a bird, calming her down by “[getting] her feathers smoothed and her goodies into a bag” (596). Although the buy essay online and addictions, character’s outlook should not necessarily be extended to Updike himself, there are certainly grounds to criticize his treatment of women. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/a-and-p-and-other-stories/study-guide/summary-a-and-p-part-1 in MLA Format. Buy Essay Online Restructuring Plan? Study Guide Navigation About AP and Other Stories AP and Other Stories Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Ace in the Hole A P, Part 1 A P, Part 2 A P, Part 3 Pigeon Feathers Separating Short Easter Consumerism and the Cold War Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Mini-Store John Updike Biography. AP and Other Stories Questions and papers online cheap and payment system Answers. The Question and buy essay online mills restructuring plan Answer section for AP and Other Stories is a great resource to using online, ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Buy Essay Online Arvind Restructuring? Sammy is a nineteen-year-old cashier at the A P, a large supermarket chain.
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Nietzsche - Are amor fati and eternal recurrence compatible doctrines. 12 Pages, Grade: 1,3 (A) Are amor fati and eternal recurrence compatible doctrines? The essay deals with the buy essay online arvind restructuring plan compatibility of two doctrines - amor fati and buy research papers cheap and payment monitoring system eternal recurrence. The purpose of this paper will not be to assess if they are compatible in buy essay online cheap the sense of buy essay solar street whether they can work in buy essay cheap arvind restructuring intertwined harmony. I will not discuss the legitimacy of amor fati as a doctrine but eternal recurrence with its non-religious claims needs to in the online classroom stand up to our scrutiny. Cheap Arvind Restructuring? A doctrine can be either based on knowledge or on belief. It would stand to reason therefore to verify eternal recurrence?s claims to legitimacy through knowledge – empirical or physical evidence or through belief. In regard to knowledge I will have to prove if eternal recurrence is comprehensible, to online cheap find out whether or not amor fati and eternal recurrence are working hand in hand. Buy Essay Cheap Mills? Without plausible reasoning the final goal of amor fati can not be reached through the way of eternal recurrence.
Firstly it is therefore necessary to find some empirical or physical proof for buy research papers nvq 5 his thesis upon which one can build the basis for empirical interpretations of the eternal recurrence. Secondly Nietzsche?s eternal recurrence can be seen hypothetically, as a game of thoughts, where one is asked to imagine his/her life recurring innumerable times in all its smallest details and should then react to online cheap restructuring this imagined state-of-affairs. Taking the assumption that those statements are in buy research papers online cheap themselves rational and buy essay online cheap arvind restructuring convincing I can state that eternal recurrence leads consequently to amor fati. Online Cheap? Therefore both doctrines are compatible. If it is not the case eternal recurrence will just be based on belief. I will answer the buy essay restructuring plan questions if Nietzsche really offers a new doctrine through which one can reach the goal of affirmation of life or if it is only a doctrine on the basis of faith. The goal of Nietzsche?s ambitious teaching is amor fati. Amor fati is the love of life itself and the love of fate. It does not stand for passive acceptance of all fruitful and painful experiences in life but for the love to all activities one performs and especially towards events which happen to oneself by chance. “It is this total love of Write in Denmark life which accepts all, rejects nothing, but preserves a sovereign mastery of the unruly elements in the self, which Nieztsche continually celebrates under the name Amor Fati” (Williams, p. Xvii). It entails the yes to buy essay online plan necessities, which means in the worst case, that perhaps one is cheap monitoring, entitled only to fail in mills life.
Nietzsche does not want us to papers online cheap loaning system base the doctrine of amor fati on belief of the Christian religion anymore but on the knowledge of eternal recurrence as a proof that we can love and change our lives out of ourselves, without a God. Online Cheap Mills Restructuring Plan? The Dionysianism in his book The Birth of Tragedy is an Write My Essay, obvious example for arvind amor fati as Nietzsche admires the Greek for celebrating all cycles in life, even the phases that consist in online cheap loaning monitoring system degeneration and online cheap arvind mills restructuring decay. However, since in Nietzsche?s mind God is dead and nihilism reigns he thinks that we have to search for another way to reach the buy essay cheap broiler final goal of total affirmation of life. Cheap Mills Restructuring? I will not examine whether or not amor fati is buy essay and addictions paper, a doctrine worth striving for, as it is not reasonable to question the arvind mills sense of papers loaning and payment monitoring system a target (like a footballer kicking a goal when he does not yet know where the goal posts are). An aim is static and buy essay online arvind restructuring it is not rational to judge measures which lead towards it when one is not sure about the goal itself. Taking amor fati as the desired end it leaves for me to test eternal recurrence?s validity as a method.
The method of eternal recurrence can be rooted on physical or hypothetical evidence or it can be a matter of belief. Referring to the Pons dictionary “a doctrine is online street light, a set of principles or beliefs, especially religious ones” (Brown, p. 323). Robert Allen makes it even clearer that a doctrine can be based on two different set of principles. “Doctrine [is] a principle or the body of principles in a branch of knowledge or system of belief” (Allen, p. 253). One has got rather scientific or rational roots, the other consists of conviction or trust in somebody or something. If Nietzsche?s set of principles have the power to make people change their lives towards amor fati, we can conclude that eternal recurrence forms a new doctrine and mills restructuring that those two doctrines are compatible.
Looking at belief in terms of faith one can certainly claim that it changes people?s lives. However Nietzsche did not intend to create a new believe and definitely not a new religion. Buy Essay Online Street? Zarathustra explained that “You had not yet sought yourselves when you found me. Thus do all believers; therefore all belief is buy essay online arvind mills, of so little account” (Nietzsche, p. 103). He wanted to convince people to look not to a god but to cheap solar street light themselves for a reason to live. Nietzsche wanted to give reasons to alter ones attitude towards life. Belief starts, he knew, where reasoning ends.
Therefore I suggest that Nietzsche did not want belief to be the basis of his doctrine but logic. Plan? “It is power, this new virtue; it is a ruling idea, and around it a subtle soul: a golden sun, and around it the serpent of knowledge” (Nietzsche, p. 101). To teach the people, maybe as well as himself, how to affirm and eventually improve this imperfect life, he invented the doctrine of street light eternal recurrence. The idea occurred to him in August 1881 and appeared first in print in The Gay Science . Eternal recurrence is buy essay cheap restructuring plan, constituted by Nietzsche as follows: “This life as you live it and have lived it you will have to live it once again and innumerable times again; and there will be nothing new in cheap and addictions it, but every pain and every joy and every thought and sigh and everything unspeakably small or great in your life must return to you, and all in the same succession and sequence…” (Williams, p. Cheap Restructuring Plan? 194). For him eternal recurrence and amor fati are closely connected. Nietzsche?s ideal is “the most exuberant, most living and most world-affirming man, who has not only learned to get on and treat with all that was and buy research papers nvq 5 is but who wants to have it again as it was and buy essay online cheap arvind mills restructuring plan is to all eternity. ” (Novak, p. 165). Eternal recurrence is “his most controversial teaching and the one he [Nietzsche] considered the most important” (Magnus, p. Phobias And Addictions? 38). In the literature it mainly discusses, whether eternal return leads to affirmation of life or not, on two different levels: the empirical or the hypothetical interpretation of Nietzsche?s worldview. Starting off with the buy essay plan empirical hypothesis, I will refer to Bernd Magnus who deals with this topic in length in his book Nietzsche?s Existential Imperative . He disproofs the physical basis of Nietzsche?s doctrine and street light withdraws with it, the online arvind plan empirical legitimation. Leaving the Service hypothetical view of Nietzsche?s teaching aside for a moment, eternal return is buy essay online cheap mills restructuring, made impossible and with it the influence on Write My Essay Service in Denmark affirmation of life.
Most authors agree with Magnus that Nietzsche?s argumentation in terms of physical reliability are either trivial or false. Tracy Strong for buy essay online mills restructuring example admits that the doctrine of reappearing again and again, unchanged, “hardly seems worth taking seriously, except, perhaps, in the light of offering some new form of moral behaviour by which the individual might relate his choices to a universal principle” (Strong, p. Write My Essay Service In Denmark? 261). Magnus enforces it, that “there can be no unambiguous empirical argument for recurrence in Nietzsche?s works at all and online cheap that he was himself aware of this fact” (Magnus, p. 74). Writing My Research Paper In The? One evidence for this claim could be that references to the empirical requirements of the doctrine are only to be found in the Nachla? which was published later by his sister – not by online cheap mills restructuring plan himself. However taking this fact into account, nine broad empirical assumptions can be drawn from the Nachla?, according to Magnus. I will deal with four of them, which if true, could have been the empirical basis of Nietzsche?s thesis. Nietzsche states: “In infinite time, every possible combination would at some time or other be realized; more: it would be realized an infinite number of times” (Magnus, p. 77) - as for him time is infinite and energy definitely is finite. He therefore could divide infinite time through a finite amount of energy and online phobias paper he ended up with a finite number of energy combinations and developments.
Nietzsche claims that with limited possibilities and buy essay arvind restructuring plan unlimited time the combinations will be repeated innumerable times. In his empirical studies Nietzsche must have been very much influenced by the zeitgeist of this period. Online Poultry Broiler Farming? Especially before the turn of the buy essay cheap arvind plan century, it was thought that the major laws of physics had been discovered (Newton’s laws covered the gravitational effects, Maxwell’s laws the electromagnetic etc.) and the world would be fully describable by them. At that time physicists believed the universe to be a gigantic deterministic “clock work”, where every future behaviour of writing my research paper blogs in the online a system (e.g. the movements of the planets around the sun) could be equated, just by the initial conditions given. Therefore Nietzsche tried to find physical evidence for his doctrine of eternal recurrence to increase the buy essay cheap arvind mills restructuring plan plausibility of his teaching and to make it more convincing. Paper Classroom? I can also imagine that Nietzsche was probably influenced by the, for his time, recent achievements in Statistical Mechanics (Boltzmann, Gibbs etc.). Buy Essay Online Restructuring Plan? Quantum mechanics was not yet invented, so he could not get the buy research online cheap statistical mechanics in the right context. It is worth mentioning that quantum mechanics even though it postulates discrete energy levels, which would give a good point to buy essay cheap arvind mills restructuring plan Nietzsche’s reasoning for a finite number of energy states, it also tells us that the world is in Denmark, not deterministic at all, but dominated by complete random and not repetition of the same. Yet Georg Simmel?s classical refutation grants that there are only three number of states in the system. Indeed it would be going beyond the limits of this essay to discuss Nietzsche’s hypothesis in the context of quantum mechanics.
Instead I would like to bring another argument on stake to disproof Nietzsche’s physical basis for the doctrine of eternal recurrence. It seems to me that Nietzsche used some arguments that he got from buy essay online mills restructuring thermodynamics, but he has not considered the whole theory with devastating results for his theses. He did not consider the buy essay street second law of buy essay mills plan thermodynamics. It states that the cheap loaning system entropy (information loss) of buy essay online cheap mills a system can never decrease. The state with the highest entropy (disorder) is the most likely and nature tends toward it. Now what does that mean to Nietzsche’s thesis? If you let a system evolve with time, it will tend to go in the state of highest entropy and rest there (equilibrium state). Therefore there will not be any repetition.
Without room for repetition Nietzsche?s idea of eternal return breaks down. “I do not mean to suggest that Nietzsche was uninterested in finding empirical confirmation for his doctrine. On the contrary, he was very much interested in finding empirical confirmation, but apparently for a doctrine which he had embraced for reasons other than empirical cogency” (Magnus, p. 88). His insufficient physical argument though suggests that it was rather written as a thought experiment than as a sustained argument in papers support of a definitive thesis. Nietzsche consciously left those physical experiments unpublished because he himself knew that, without profound scientifically support, it would not increase the credibility of his doctrine. However since his Nachla? was made public, authors tried to proof him wrong to plan destroy the scientific basis of the doctrine. “. his scientifiic . pronouncements were based more on writing my research paper online inspired guesswork and self-oberservation than on reading or research” (Hayman, p. 360) which he most likely had already realised himself.
However without eternal return of buy essay cheap things and events Nietzsche?s eternal recurrence is buy research online system, evitable no doctrine, not even a persuasive idea. According to the present physical knowledge Nietzsche?s assumtions, which led him to his conclusion or which he tried to use to back up his doctrine, are wrong. “Nietzsche should have been deeply dissatisfied with his “proof,” which is incomplete and invalid” (Nehamas, p. Cheap Arvind Restructuring? 142). Therefore, as far as the papers cheap nvq 5 empirical worldview is concerned, there can not be any connection between amor fati and eternal recurrence because, as shown, eternal return physically does not exist. Master's Thesis, 130Pages. Term Paper (Advanced seminar), 21Pages.
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Daniel Bivona, “On W. K. Clifford and ‘The Ethics of Belief,’ 11 April 1876? The mathematician W. K. Clifford was the youngest and possibly most controversial member of the Metaphysical Society, a group originally formed by Alfred Lord Tennyson and some close friends. Lasting from 1869 to 1880, the Society ultimately brought together a great variety of intellectuals, writers, philosophers, scientists, poets, journal editors, politicians, and Church figures of the era for vigorous debates on metaphysical topics. Online Arvind Restructuring Plan. A pioneering promoter and translator of the non-Euclidian geometer Riemann, Clifford anticipated Einstein’s discovery that gravity was not a mysterious force of My Essay Service in Denmark, bodies but an effect of curved space, but it was his withering criticism of metaphysical claims before the Metaphysical Society – in particular, his attack on the morality of believing on insufficient evidence, an argument which was delivered two years after he first joined the group and later published as the essay “The Ethics of Belief” – that marked him as the most controversial proponent of the buy essay online cheap mills restructuring, agnostic position in the late Victorian period. When he died at the young age of buy essay poultry broiler farming, 33 in cheap mills 1879, Clifford left a legacy of important unpublished scientific work and a number of impressive published essays in papers cheap nvq 5 which he offered both a very compelling critique of the ethics of metaphysical commitments and a powerful argument, inspired by Darwin’s Descent of Man , in favor of the claim that ethics derive from evolutionary history rather than descending from an immaterial God. The Metaphysical Society was formed in 1869 by a group led initially by the architect Sir James Knowles, the poet laureate Alfred Lord Tennyson, and buy essay online cheap arvind mills restructuring plan, the astronomer Charles Pritchard. Knowles had a lively interest in metaphysical exploration and he helped to cheap phobias and addictions paper encourage that taste in his friend Tennyson.
Tennyson by mills plan, 1869 had also been nursing for some time a fear that the Victorian age had become an buy essay cheap and addictions paper, age of materialism, and consequently inattentive to important spiritual matters. Pritchard, who would soon become the Savilian Professor of cheap arvind, Astronomy at Oxford, was convinced, in buy essay online street the aftermath of the controversy over Essays and Reviews (in 1860), of the need to reconcile scientific knowledge and the Bible and buy essay online arvind mills, he likewise helped encourage the poet’s interest in metaphysical speculation (Metcalf 212). Although initially the group wanted to exclude opponents of Christianity from discussions, they soon became convinced that inviting opponents of Christianity into the Society would guarantee lively discussions of the evidences for Christian belief (Metcalf 214). The Society ultimately brought together a great variety of intellectuals, writers, philosophers, scientists, poets, journal editors, politicians, and Church figures of the buy essay cheap broiler, era for mills restructuring vigorous debates. The distinguished roster of members included, besides the three most important founding members, Dean Stanley and Archbishop Manning, the Broad Church theologian F. D. Maurice, intellectuals such as John Ruskin, Leslie Stephen, Mark Pattison, Walter Bagehot, and J. A. Froude, future and current prime ministers Arthur Balfour and William Ewart Gladstone, as well as scientists and philosophers such as T. H. Huxley, William Tyndall, Sir John Lubbock, and the young mathematician William Kingdon Clifford. Buy Essay Online Broiler. The group met for nine monthly meetings per year from its founding in 1869 until its demise in 1880. At these meetings, papers were read and discussed by the membership and often reprinted in journals such as The Contemporary Review and The Nineteenth Century . The volume Papers Read at the Meetings of the Metaphysical Society contains a complete roster of the well-known participants ( Papers xiii-xiv). Figure 1: William Kingdon Clifford, 1901. By deriving ethics from evolution and attempting to shift the focus of scientific interest from the “individual” to the “group,” Clifford eventually became an effective polemical voice on the “godless” side of the acerbic debates over arvind mills design and natural selection that characterized British intellectual life more broadly in the period.
Moreover, the work he did in his short lifetime (and the work published after his death by the defenders of his reputation such as Karl Pearson and his wife, the novelist Lucy Clifford) ensured a central role for online cheap solar his ideas in the increasingly heated debates about the nature of the “social” in what would eventually be called “Social Darwinism.” In fact, his categorical dismissal of “self-regarding virtues” (“there are no self-regarding virtues”) made him an effective critic of Utilitarianism as well—indeed, of all ethical systems which take the individual as a starting point (“Scientific Basis” 121). Although he was the youngest member of the Metaphysical Society and was not invited to join the group until it had been in existence for five years, he seems to have quickly become one of the most controversial, if not influential, members of that distinguished, and varied, group. His importance clearly stemmed in part, not only from his challenging philosophical claims about the online cheap arvind mills, origins of human ethical reasoning, but also from the clarity with which he presented these ideas in his lectures and essays. Indeed, “The Ethics of Belief,” which was presented to the Society in 1876 and published in a different form in the Contemporary Review in 1877, stirred up a significant controversy, drawing sharp criticism from Matthew Arnold among others and ultimately helping to spawn William James’s thoughtfully critical response twenty years later in “Will to Believe.” Clifford’s very accessible prose style contributed mightily to buy essay cheap stoking the controversy over “The Ethics of Belief,” for in that essay Clifford not only avoided the buy essay mills plan, obscure jargon that is sometimes a distinguishing feature of metaphysical debates, but illustrated his claims with familiar examples that his audience found variously compelling or infuriating. If not the online and addictions paper, most complex argument, “The Ethics of Belief” is, nonetheless, the most important and provocative polemical work produced by any of the group of “Metaphysicals” that Bernard Lightman calls “the agnostics” (Huxley, Tyndall, Stephen, and Clifford [Lightman 2]). Indeed, one might say that Clifford takes the fear that many believers harbored—the fear that to challenge Christian metaphysics is to undermine Christian ethics—and turns it against arvind, the prejudices of the devout by accusing them of immorality precisely for promoting belief in metaphysical entities for which there is no compelling evidence. “The Ethics of Belief” begins with the claim that it is immoral to believe anything on insufficient evidence. Buy Essay Solar Street Light. One example Clifford gives involves a shipowner who decides to allow a vessel to leave port despite his knowing that the evidence points to its being unseaworthy. Whether he believes the buy essay online restructuring plan, ship to be seaworthy (and believes this sincerely) or whether the ship actually does sail successfully to buy research nvq 5 its next port of call (and thus avoids disastrous consequences), is irrelevant.
The shipowner is still acting in buy essay arvind plan an “immoral” way in My Essay allowing the ship to set sail whether it reaches its next port or not, because he is acting against what the preponderance of the buy essay online cheap arvind mills restructuring plan, evidence tells him about the ship’s condition (“Ethics” 70). Ethically, it matters not whether the belief in Write My Essay in Denmark its seaworthiness is sincerely held or even factually true. What matters is that the shipowner in this case ignores what the evidence points to, his belief is buy essay online cheap arvind mills restructuring plan, held on insufficient evidence, and thus, he acts in an immoral way. Moreover, in buy essay solar light Clifford’s view, “no man’s belief is…a private matter which concerns himself alone” (“Ethics” 73). All beliefs have serious ethical consequences for others. To behave in a credulous way is not simply to make an error of reasoning relevant only to one’s own individual state of mind; rather, to fall into credulity is to perform an immoral act with serious consequences for other people. Buy Essay Cheap Restructuring Plan. As Clifford says, The danger to society is buy essay street light, not merely that it should believe wrong things, though that is great enough; but that it should become credulous, and lose the habit of testing things and buy essay online mills restructuring plan, inquiring into them; for then it must sink back into savagery. (“Ethics” 76) If one takes a different example, for instance, a seemingly harmless belief in spirit mediums, one can see why Clifford refuses to concede that even such ostensibly harmless beliefs are actually harmless to society. My Research Paper Using Blogs In The Online Classroom. Because these beliefs can only be sustained by ingrained habits of refusing the conclusions entailed by evidence, to believe in mills restructuring spirit mediums is to foster credulity more generally and thus to encourage habits of refusing to buy research cheap loaning monitoring system inquire into the evidence for belief.
It is no surprise, then, to learn that Clifford was at odds with such Metaphysicals as Henry Sidgwick and Arthur Balfour on this issue, or to learn that he once successfully exposed the “famous Williams” as a fraud at one of his seances (Madigan 34). Clifford’s claims in “The Ethics of Belief” excited vituperative criticism from a variety of Metaphysicals and others. The first response to appear in print came from Henry Wace in The Contemporary Review in June 1877. Another of buy essay cheap arvind restructuring plan, Clifford’s critics, William George Ward, the Roman Catholic editor of the Dublin Review , followed with perhaps the harshest polemical attack on Clifford in an article entitled “The Reasonable Basis of Certitude,” which appeared in Nineteenth Century in 1878. A deft practitioner of hyperbolic argument himself, Ward zeroed in on the hyperbolic element of Clifford’s argument: his claim that one has an ethical obligation to examine the evidence for all beliefs. The counter example Ward gives—of a man in a village who bases his conviction of the superiority of his village’s cricket eleven to the cricket eleven of a neighboring village on no evidence whatsoever–is an amusing reductio ad absurdum of Clifford’s claim about the immorality involved in believing anything on insufficient evidence (Madigan 87-8).
Clifford’s claims could be caricatured in such a way by anyone who notices that, in fact, all of buy essay cheap broiler, us do operate on many beliefs day-to-day that we have neither the patience nor the time to examine the buy essay cheap arvind mills, evidence for. However, Ward’s attack on Clifford ends with Ward elaborating a sophistical argument in defense of the Catholic Church’s refusal to allow its faithful to read the works of skeptical authors like Clifford (Qtd in Madigan 89). This is precisely the attitude to belief that Clifford is street, criticizing in buy essay online arvind his essay and blogs classroom, his most vituperative critic among the Metaphysicals cannot avoid exposing, in his own essay attacking Clifford’s position, exactly the anti-rational stance Clifford so deftly skewers in his own. The Metaphysical Society was organized not simply to provide a forum for debating metaphysical and online cheap plan, epistemological claims. All its members—whether agnostic or not—appear to have shared the fear that serious ethical issues were at stake in these metaphysical debates. In short, the Society implicitly sought to address what might be called Dostoyevsky’s question: if God is dead, is everything permitted? Clifford, thus, was, if anything, as interested in addressing the question of the origins of morality as in raising doubts about the existence and wisdom of God, and part of what made “The Ethics of my research blogs online classroom, Belief” so controversial was Clifford’s aiming a direct attack in it on the morality of metaphysical commitments.
To believe in angels is not simply wrong-headed to buy essay cheap arvind plan Clifford; it is morally wrong. Clifford’s earlier essay “On the Scientific Basis of Morals” is perhaps his most complex and buy research papers loaning and payment monitoring system, novel treatment of the evolutionary foundation for morality (it was first published in The Contemporary Review in 1875). Not quite as provokingly polemical, perhaps, as the restructuring, later “Ethics of Belief,” this essay is, nonetheless, the most complete statement of online cheap light, Clifford’s views on arvind, what he called “the tribal self”—an ethical agency produced by evolution but one that is not identifiable with any organized religion. He begins by arguing that all humans have been blessed by evolution with a “moral sense,” which he argues inspires feelings of buy research papers cheap, “pleasure or unpleasure” in the doing of actions and buy essay online cheap mills restructuring, which is “felt by the human mind in contemplating certain courses of conduct” (287). Buy Research Papers Cheap Loaning Monitoring System. This does not at all suggest to buy essay online cheap arvind mills restructuring Clifford, however, that moral judgments are as individual as humans are.
The “maxims of absolute or universal right” are not necessarily “universal” but they are felt to be independent of the writing my research using online, individual: their power to compel human behavior comes partly from the fact that they embody the moral authority of the arvind mills plan, group rather than just the individual (288). The source of moral agency is ultimately this “tribal self,” a component of the cheap farming, human mind that shapes human moral behavior in ways that have worked to the benefit of the tribe over the course of evolutionary time. Buy Essay Online Arvind Mills Plan. Our “savage” ancestors followed the dictates of this agency, and this accounts for why “the savage is not only hurt when anybody treads on his foot but when anybody treads on his tribe” (291). Emphasizing Darwin’s insight (in The Descent of Man ) that the ability of humans to cooperate through language means that, in human evolutionary history, natural selection might well have operated as much to the benefit of the social group as to the benefit of the individual, Clifford argues, “natural selection will in buy essay online phobias paper the long run preserve those tribes which have approved the buy essay cheap, right things; namely those things which at that time gave the tribe an advantage in the struggle for existence” (292-3). Online Cheap Phobias. Hence, what we call “conscience” is no more than “self-judgment in cheap arvind restructuring plan the name of the tribe” (293). To trace the buy essay cheap paper, foundations of ethical judgment, we need not travel to Sinai. We need only examine the online arvind mills restructuring, evolutionary function of morality: “Those tribes have on cheap phobias paper, the whole survived in which conscience approved such actions as tended to the improvement of men’s characters as citizens and therefore to the survival of the tribe” (297).
The evolutionary model of morality that Clifford develops here necessarily commits him to something he delighted in—redefining religious language for polemical purposes, in this case, to buy essay online cheap mills ground ethics in the material foundation of Write in Denmark, evolutionary history, to take it out of the possessive hands of the religious who insist on grounding morality in the orders of a deity. Thus, “piety” no longer is to cheap arvind restructuring plan be seen as a behavioral response to the demands of one’s immaterial God, its proper form shaped by the dictates of religious authority, but rather as a behavioral response to what is demanded by “the tribe,” a response conditioned by evolutionary advantage: It is necessary to the tribe that the pious character should be encouraged and preserved, the impious character discouraged and paper in the classroom, removed….[T]he actions whose open approval is liked by buy essay arvind mills plan, the tribal self are called right actions, and buy essay online cheap broiler farming, those whose open disapproval is disliked are called wrong actions. (294) Clifford was ahead of buy essay cheap restructuring, his time in helping to my research blogs online define the emerging late Victorian evolutionary concept of “social efficiency” although he deploys the concept in a more sophisticated way than would later be done by Benjamin Kidd in his Social Evolution of cheap mills restructuring plan, 1894, a work which popularized the term and which made a name for buy essay online cheap poultry its heretofore unknown author partly because in it he assigned to buy essay online cheap arvind mills restructuring plan organized religion the evolutionary function of cheap loaning, promoting social cohesion. Since the “tribal self” is buy essay online, responsible for promoting “pious” behavior, and since Clifford’s notion of “pious” behavior redefines virtue as what serves the goal of evolutionary efficiency for the group, we can then dispense with the unnecessary hypothesis of God, not to mention the need for assigning a grandiose social role to organized forms of religion. Moreover, there can be no “self-regarding virtues,” according to Clifford, no ethical requirements favoring the practice of virtues such as prudence and temperance which have no clear bearing on Write Service in Denmark, the welfare of others. All virtues can only “be rightly encouraged in buy essay online cheap restructuring so far as they are shown to conduce to the efficiency of a citizen; that is, in Write Service in Denmark so far as they cease to be self-regarding” (298). Moreover, virtue cannot be grounded in the practice of altruism, which Darwin ruled out buy essay mills restructuring plan, as an impossible result of the operation of natural selection. Cooperation, yes, because cooperative behavior offers evolutionary payoffs for species that cooperate with one another.
Altruism, no, because, as Clifford says, “Piety is cheap solar street, not Altruism. It is online arvind mills restructuring, not the doing good to using blogs in the online others as others, but the service of the buy essay restructuring plan, community by a member of Write in Denmark, it, who loses in that service the consciousness that he is anything different from the community” (299). In this respect, Clifford anticipates the more complex view of the social nature of human identity that was outlined in 1895 by J. A. Hobson in his trenchant critique of Kidd’s Social Evolution (Hobson 302-3). In another of his essays, “The Ethics of Religion,” Clifford offers a direct challenge to the claim that organized religion serves social efficiency (it first appeared in print in the Fortnightly Review , July 1877). Online Cheap Arvind Plan. Clifford’s case against writing in the online, religion is based partly in a critique of metaphysics and partly in mills plan a view that religions persistently confound “purely ceremonial” proscriptions with necessary moral laws (“Religion” 365). Insofar as they produce and reproduce this confusion, they work against social efficiency. Thus, he cites two famous comments attributed by the New Testament to Jesus: “He that believeth not shall be damned” ( King James Bible : Mark 16:16) and “Blessed are they that have not seen and yet have believed” ( King James Bible : John 20:29). Clifford’s response to these claims is, “For a man who clearly felt and recognised the duty of intellectual honesty, of carefully testing every belief before he received it, and especially before he recommended it to others, it would be impossible to ascribe the profoundly immoral teaching of buy research online cheap system, these texts to a true prophet or worthy leader of humanity” (“Religion” 102). Buy Essay Online Cheap Arvind Mills Plan. If believing on insufficient evidence is “immoral,” it necessarily follows that the founder of Christianity, at least in this aspect of his teaching, is a profoundly immoral person. Clifford’s influence among the devout would ultimately be limited by this tendency to defiant polemics, and there is little evidence in any case that the more conventionally religious members of the Metaphysical Society had the slightest interest in being persuaded to share his views. While his ideas stirred up passionate support among the street, “agnostic” group in the Metaphysical Society, even the agnostics hesitated, after his death, to promote his ideas too publicly out of the fear that they would endanger their own, hard won, professional respectability.
The publication of Clifford’s “Ethics of Belief” in the Contemporary Review in 1877 not only seems to have led to the sacking of its editor, James Knowles, by buy essay online cheap mills plan, the new owners of the periodical, but it ensured that Clifford himself “became an object of persistent vilification in online and addictions the new more doctrinally conservative Contemporary that began to appear subsequently” (Dawson 168). Even before he had been asked to cheap mills restructuring join the Metaphysical Society, Clifford’s views on sexuality and divorce and his celebration of Swinburne and Whitman as the exponents of “cosmic emotion” in a May 1873 Sunday Lecture Series address had raised eyebrows among his “agnostic” friends (Dawson 169; “Cosmic Emotion” 411-29). According to Dawson, after Clifford’s death in 1879, T. H. Huxley set out deliberately to do what he could to writing using in the online protect Clifford’s reputation from being sullied by association with “political radicalism, extremist atheism, and Swinburne’s controversial aesthetic poetry”–all of which were nonetheless important to cheap arvind Clifford in his lifetime (Dawson 165). Clifford’s ideas about papers online cheap monitoring, divorce were quite radical for their time, and his critique of metaphysics positioned him as the most strident of the “agnostics.” Moreover, his celebration of Proudhon and arvind mills plan, Swinburne tied him closely both to utopian socialism and aestheticist poetry in cheap the minds of his critics (165). Buy Essay Online Cheap Arvind Restructuring Plan. Clifford’s close friends and colleagues, Frederick Pollock and Leslie Stephen, who posthumously edited and published his Lectures and Essays , were apparently so worried about protecting his reputation after his death in 1879 that they bowdlerized a number of the essays in order to leave a better “impression” with readers (173). While the young Karl Pearson, who edited Clifford’s posthumously published The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences (1885), happily used material from Clifford’s provocative essay “Mistress or Wife” in my research paper blogs in the online his essay “Socialism and Sex,” Clifford’s wife Lucy “subtly refashioned aspects of Clifford’s actual personality that might now play into buy essay online cheap arvind mills, the hands of his numerous adversaries” [after his death] (187). For this reason, George Levine refers to Clifford as “the Oscar Wilde of the naturalists” (255). However controversial Clifford’s views on sexuality, aesthetic poetry, and divorce ultimately made him, his polemical essays on ethics for the Metaphysical Society ought to be considered a major contribution to the study of the cheap poultry broiler farming, evolutionary origins of ethics. Moreover, he was certainly more responsible than any of the “Metaphysicals” for placing ethics squarely in the domain of cheap arvind mills restructuring plan, science. His writings and lectures on this topic are characterized by directness, a carefully logical form of argumentation, and online cheap, a resort to Scriptural examples that infuriated his opponents and left his supporters cheering him. The tone of his essays, however, is perhaps not quite as clear as one would think.
Clifford’s characterization of Jesus cited above provides a prime example. Does he truly believe that the Jesus who commends blind faith is an immoral person or is he deliberately employing a hyperbolic rhetorical strategy here designed to produce maximum shock? While there is no particular reason to arvind restructuring plan doubt the sincerity of his claims, the My Essay, question of tone–and thus, sincerity–has to be raised simply because it could not have escaped his attention that he was firing a Big Bertha at the defenders of Christianity. Buy Essay Online Cheap Arvind Mills Plan. Bernard Lightman has argued that Victorian agnosticism was anything but atheistical. That is, the agnostic group shared with many traditional theists in the Victorian Age the buy research papers cheap, belief that metaphysical debates, in the final analysis, boil down to discussions about the buy essay online arvind restructuring plan, limitations faced by the human mind in phobias and addictions paper trying to cheap restructuring plan comprehend an solar, ultimately unknowable God. Thus, the agnostics were not attempting to buy essay online mills restructuring destroy religion. Instead, they sought to purify it (Lightman 125). Moreover, Lightman argues that Clifford retained “a high regard for the original spirit of Christianity” despite being the most “savage” of the agnostics in his attacks on it (122). If Lightman’s claim is accurate, Clifford perhaps must be seen less as a consistent intellectual radical and using classroom, more as a figure of multiple contradictions: a scientific materialist imbued with “cosmic emotion”; an empiricist unable to forsake things in themselves; the cheap arvind mills plan, most “savage” critic of organized Christianity and Christian metaphysics in the period who nevertheless retains a great fondness for the moral example of paper in the online classroom, Jesus Christ; an ethicist who derives ethics from evolution but who cannot finally surrender higher–if not high-minded—aspirations for human society. Daniel Bivona, currently associate professor of English at Arizona State University, is author or co-author of three books: Desire and Contradiction (Manchester UP, 1990), British Imperial Literature, 1870 to 1940 (Cambridge UP, 1998), and (with Roger B. Henkle) The Imagination of Class (Ohio State UP, 2006).
He is currently at work on two collections and a monograph tentatively entitled The Natural and Social History of Pluck: Character and buy essay online cheap restructuring plan, Competition in the Victorian Age . His essays have appeared in a variety of journals including Nineteenth Century Literature, Novel, Nineteenth Century Contexts, and Nineteenth Century Studies . HOW TO CITE THIS BRANCH ENTRY (MLA format) Bivona, Daniel. “On W. K. Clifford and buy essay online phobias and addictions, ‘The Ethics of Belief,’ 11 April 1876.” BRANCH: Britain, Representation and Nineteenth-Century History . Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net . Web. [Here, add your last date of access to BRANCH]. Berman, David. A History of Atheism in Britain: From Hobbes to online cheap arvind mills restructuring plan Russell . London, New York and Sydney: Croom Helm, 1988.
Print. Clifford, William Kingdon. The Common Sense of the Exact Sciences . Ed. Monitoring. Karl Pearson. London: Kegan Paul Trench Trubner and Co., 1907 . Web. Buy Essay Arvind Plan. 16 October 2012. —. Online Cheap And Payment System. “Cosmic Emotion.” The Nineteenth Century 2 (1877): 411-29. Print.
—. Buy Essay Online Cheap Restructuring. “The Ethics of Belief.” “The Ethics of Belief” and Other Essays . Ed. Timothy J. Madigan. Cheap Poultry Farming. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999. 70-96. Print. —. Online Cheap Mills Restructuring. “The Ethics of using, Religion.” “The Ethics of Belief” and Other Essays . Ed. Timothy J. Madigan. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1999. 97-121. Print.
—. “On the Scientific Basis of buy essay online arvind restructuring plan, Morals.” Lectures and Essays by online phobias and addictions paper, the Late William Kingdon Clifford . Online Mills Restructuring. Eds. Frederick Pollock and cheap farming, Leslie Stephen. 2nd ed. Buy Essay Cheap Mills Plan. New York: Macmillan and Write in Denmark, Co., 1886. 287-99.
Web. 1 March 2012. Darwin, Charles. The Descent of Man and Selection in arvind restructuring Relation to Sex . London: John Murray, 1875. Print. Dawson, Gowan. Darwin, Literature, and Victorian Respectability . Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2007. Using In The Classroom. Print. Hobson, J. A. “Mr. Kidd’s Social Evolution .” American Journal of Sociology 1.3 (Nov.
1895): 299-312. JSTOR. 14 March 2012. James, William. The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy . New York, London, Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras: Longmans Green and Co., 1896. Web. 30 June 2012. The Holy Bible . Authorized King James Version.
New York and Scarborough, Ontario: Meridian Books, n.d. Print. Kidd, Benjamin. Social Evolution . New York: Macmillan, 1894. Online Cheap Restructuring Plan. Print. Levine, George. “Scientific Discourse as an Alternative to Faith.” Victorian Faith in Crisis: Essays on Continuity and Change in Nineteenth Century Religious Belief . Eds. Richard J. Helmstadter and Bernard Lightman. London: Macmillan, 1990. 225-61. Print. Lightman, Bernard.
The Origins of Agnosticism . Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins UP, 1987. Print. Madigan, Timothy J. W. K. Clifford and “The Ethics of Belief.” Newcastle upon buy essay cheap Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009. Arvind Plan. Print. Metcalf, Priscilla. James Knowles: Victorian Editor and Architect . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1980. Papers Read at the Meetings of the Metaphysical Society (1869 to 1880) . London: Metaphysical Society, n.d. Web. 1 June 2012. Wace, Henry. “‘The Ethics of Belief’: A Reply to Professor Clifford.” Contemporary Review 30 (June 1877): 42-54. Print.
Ward, William George. “The Reasonable Basis of Certitude.” The Twentieth Century.