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Brief overview on The Mauritian Legal System Essay Sample. 1. Historical background The Mauritian legal system is a unique hybrid system with French Substantive law (for Offences) English Law (Procedure Evidence Language) English judges with English law background will be interpreting our laws which invariably include French laws. How To Write A Critique Paper Play Essay! Thus, in 1837 it was decided that lawyers were to be trained in England. In 1841 all laws in Mauritius were originally published in English and the Court was to make reference to the English version only. The hybrid nature of buy research papers downstream, our legal system was highlighted in the report of the Committee on the Review of legal Studies in Mauritius (1983) by Rajsoomer Lallah J. Such a decision was supported by on a play essay the Supreme Court in R V Shummoogum 1977 MR 1 and Legoffe v Severy 1981 MR 89 2. Sources of Mauritian Law (a)Legislation The Constitution Primary Legislation Secondary Legislation (b)Judicial Precedents (c )Customs (d) Books of Authority/Legal Doctrine The Constitution A constitution is a set of rules, generally written, which identify and regulate the buy essay 3 review, major institutions of the state and govern the relationship between the state and the individual citizen.

In most countries the paper play essay, written constitution is the ultimate source of legal authority all actions of government and the law-making body (the legislature) must conform to the constitution. In order to uphold and interpret the constitution there will be a Supreme Court. As the constitution is the ultimate authority, any action which contravenes the rules of the constitution will be both unconstitutional and unlawful. Written constitutions also contain procedural rules for the amendment of the constitution. Constitutions, whether written or unwritten, will share common features. They will identify the principal institutions of the state, that is, the executive, the legislative and cheap write, the judiciary. In relation to each of these, the constitution will specify their functions and how to a critique essay, powers. In addition the constitution will identify the rights and freedoms of citizens so as both to protect citizens and to restrict the Essay service: Buy essays …, power of the state. There are different types of how to a critique paper play essay, Constitution 1.Written and unwritten constitutions Constitutions may be written or unwritten, and unlike the Writing service: Buy essays, majority of states, the British constitution is largely unwritten and uncodified. Allied to how to paper on a essay their written or unwritten character, constitutions may also be classified as rigid or flexible. A rigid constitution is one in which amendment is very difficult, requiring special procedures to be employed before any changes can be made.

By contrast, the British constitution is essentially flexible. Parliament the supreme law-making body within the United Kingdom may theoretically alter the constitution at cheap my essay fit in, will. Mauritius has a written constitution. 2. Republican and monarchical Constitutions may be classified according to whether they are republican or monarchical. In republics, such as the USA, there will normally be a Head of State (usually designated a President) who is directly elected by the people. In Britain by contrast, the monarchy remains, with the Queen as Head of State and holding widespread formal powers (under the royal prerogative). In practice these powers are conventionally exercised by the elected government of the day which is how to write paper, headed by the Prime Minister 3.Unitary and federal Constitutions may also be unitary or federal. Under a written constitution, the constitution will define which powers are exercisable by the central federal government, and which powers are exercisable by the constituent parts usually known as states of the buy research online cheap downstream, federation. In a federal state power is diffused rather than concentrated in any one body. The constitution has overriding force and any conflicts between the federal government and state governments will be determined according to the constitution. Write Paper On A Play Essay! For centuries, Britain has been a unitary state, with one Parliament having ultimate law-making power over all the constituent nations England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.

4.Supreme and subordinate A further classification explains whether a particular constitution is supreme or subordinate. A supreme constitution is not subject to online any external superior force. A subordinate constitution is one where as with former British colonies the how to write, constitution is drafted and introduced in a country by an external sovereign power, and theoretically may be amended or repealed by that external power. Importance of the Constitution Any organisation /company/club needs a constitutional document to operate. This can be in the form of Memorandum Articles of Association, Statutes. In the cheap processing, absence of how to a critique on a, which there may be chaos and confusion making it impossible for any positive action to be taken. Get Someone My Paper Learning And Conditioning! The constitution will designate a sovereign body, bestow powers and set limits on same, facilitate a sharing of powers among the various organs of the State and confer rights on the citizens.

A constitution is made with the assumption that a given state exists and has legal identity of its own. Play! S1 of the Constitution of Mauritius Mauritius shall be a sovereign democratic State which shall be known as the Republic of buy essay online cheap sukuk bonds, Mauritius. The Organs of the State The main organs of the state are the Legislature the Executive and the Judiciary Some main Provisions of the Constitution of paper, Mauritius Chapter II Protection of fundamental rights and freedoms of theindividual sections 3 to 19 Chapter III Citizenship sections 20 to 27 Chapter IV The President and the Vice President of the Republic of Mauritius sections 28 to 30B Chapter V Parliament sections 31 to 57 Chapter VI The Executive sections 58 to 75 Role and powers of the Executive Chapter VIA The Rodrigues Regional Assembly sections 75A to 75E Chapter VII The Judicature sections 76 to my essay fit in 84 Chapter VIII Service Commissions and the Public Service sections 85 to 95 Chapter IX The Ombudsman sections 58 to how to paper 75 Supremacy of Constitutional law Section 2.- Constitution is supreme law This Constitution is the supreme law of Mauritius, and if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution, that other law shall, to the extent of the write my essay, inconsistency, be void This supremacy ensures that all laws enacted by Parliament should be in conformity with the Constitution. In Mahboob v Government of Mauritius1982MR 135, the plaintiff sold land to a foreigner in contravention of Non-Citizens (Property Restrictions) Act, according to which one could not sell land to a foreigner without the consent of the Prime Minister. The Supreme Court held that the sale was void and allowed the plaintiff to repossess the land. Parliament later passed an Act giving effect to the sale. Held It is fundamental disposition of the Constitution that there should be separation of powers between the various organs of the state. Paper Play Essay! Parliament has no right to pronounce judgments than the Supreme Court has the right to make laws.

The enactment was an usurpation of judicial powers and the law was held to be invalid. Also, in Noordally v Attorney General 1986 MR 204 where, inter alia, Section 3 of the Essay service:, Constitution, which provides for play the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual, was in question. The applicant was arrested after he was suspected of being in possession of heroin. He was denied bail on the basis of S 46 (2) of the online cheap toy story 3 review, Dangerous Drugs Act 1986 and sought a declaration that this provision was in violation of sections 3 and how to write a critique essay, 5 of the buy research papers processing, Constitution. Write Paper On A Play Essay! It was held that S 5 indicates that the suspect remaining at large is the rule, his detention on the ground of suspicion is the exception and he must be tried within a reasonable time or be released. It is not in accordance with the letter and help, spirit of the constitution to legislate so as to how to a critique on a allow the executive to overstep the Judiciary s role in ensuring the citizen the papers online downstream processing, protection afforded by law. Within the framework of the Constitution, Parliament s right to legislate remains unfettered and a law, which passes the test of constitutionality cannot be questioned. The Courts power to control the Executive in accordance with its constitutional role also remains unfettered. Therefore, S 46 (2) of the Dangerous Drugs Act 1986 is void. Primary Legislation In a democratic State, Primary Legislation is the most important source of law For example Mauritius It is the how to write paper, responsibility of parliament to enact legislations which are subject to the limits imposed by theatre the Constitution.

45.Power to make laws (1)Subject to this Constitution, Parliament may make laws for the peace, order and good government of a critique on a essay, Mauritius. 46. Mode of exercise of legislative power (1)The power of Parliament to cheap fit in make laws shall be exercisable by Bills passed by the Assembly and write a critique, assented to by the President. A Bill is introduced into Parliament and after it has undergone the different stages in Parliament it then become an Act of Parliament after it has been assented by the President of the Republic and after publication in cheap my essay fit in the Gazette. Secondary Legislation Secondary legislation refers to those Rules and Regulations enacted by Ministers, local councils or public authorities to whom law-making power has been delegated. Section 118 of the write a critique, Constitution empowers the Commissions and tribunals established under the cheap write my essay, Constitution to make regulations for their proper functioning. Similarly, Parliament can delegate its law-making power. Section 118. Performance of functions of Commissions and tribunals (1) Any Commission established by this Constitution may by regulations make provision for regulating and facilitating the write paper play essay, performance by the Commission of help, its functions under this Constitution. Paper On A Play Essay! (2) Any decision of any such Commission shall require the concurrence of a majority of all the members and, subject to this subsection, the Commission may act, notwithstanding the absence of any member Provided that where in any particular case a vote of all the members is taken to decide the question and the votes cast are equally divided, the chairman shall have and shall exercise a casting vote. (3) Subject to this section, any such Commission may regulate its own procedure. (4) In the get someone and conditioning, exercise of its functions under this Constitution, no such Commission shall be subject to the direction or control of any other person or authority. How To A Critique Paper! (5) In addition to the functions conferred upon it by or under this Constitution, any such Commission shall have such powers and other functions as may be prescribed. (6) The validity of the transaction of business of any such Commission shall not be affected by need help do my characterizing theatre the fact that some person who was not entitled to do so took part in the proceedings. (7) Subsections (1), (2), (3) and (4) shall apply in relation to write on a play essay a tribunal established for cheap write my essay fit in the purposes of sections 5(4), 15(4), 18(3), 78(4), 92(4), or 93(4) as they apply in how to on a essay relation to online sukuk a Commission established by this Constitution, and any such tribunal shall have the same powers as the Supreme Court in respect of the attendance and examination of paper on a, witnesses (including the buy essay cheap bonds, administration of oaths and the examination of witnesses abroad) and in respect of the production of documents. The secondary legislation must be in conformity with the enabling Act (where this power has been conferred by how to write on a essay an ordinary Act of Parliament) and the Constitution. Cheap My Essay Fit In! Judicial Precedents The Doctrine of judicial Precedent is to the effect that like cases must be treated alike.

Judicial precedent means the process whereby judges follow previously decided cases where the facts are of sufficient similarity. Write A Critique Paper On A! Customs Custom is also recognized as a source of law. Two requirements must be fulfilled for it to be established that a custom exists a material element an intellectual element If only the first element is present, the practice is online sukuk bonds, referred to as a usage. A material Element There must have been a consistent practice over a period of time. In matters of trade, it has been considered that a period of 18 months is a critique paper on a, too short to establish such a practice. In Pipon Adam Co v Chapuy (1879) MR 104, it was held that for papers cheap a usage to be binding it must be known to the parties and of uniform and long continuance. The Supreme Court considered that the shortest practice that has been sustained as constituting a usage of trade is 3 years.

A practice proved to be of only 18 months was regarded as insufficient to establish a usage of trade. Write On A Essay! An intellectual element That it is papers processing, not sufficient that a practice has existed, it must also be demonstrated that the practice is adhered to because the persons concerned labour under the impression that there is a legal obligation on write paper on a their part to adopt such a course of Writing …, action. Case law Techniques The Doctrine of judicial Precedent is to the effect that like cases must be treated alike. Judicial precedent means the write a critique essay, process whereby judges follow previously decided cases where the facts are of sufficient similarity. Cheap Sukuk! Judicial precedent constitutes the cornerstone in English law. It is adhered to in Mauritius since the 1850s with the establishment of the Supreme Court, which was vested with the how to write paper essay, same powers as the Court of Queens Bench (today the High Court) The doctrine of judicial precedent involves an application of the principle of stare decisis ie, to stand by get someone learning the decided. In practice, this means that inferior courts are bound to apply the legal principles set down by a critique paper superior courts in earlier cases. This provides consistency and predictability in the law. RATIO DECIDENDI AND OBITER DICTUM The decision or judgment of a judge may fall into two parts the ratio decidendi (reason for the decision) and obiter dictum (something said by the way). RATIO DECIDENDI The ratio decidendi of a case is the principle of law on which a decision is based.

According to Sir Rupert Cross The ratio decidendi of a case is any rule of papers, law expressly or impliedly treated by the judge as a necessary step in reaching his conclusion, having regard to the line of reasoning adopted by him. When a judge delivers judgment in paper on a a case he outlines the facts which he finds have been proved on the evidence. Then he applies the law to those facts and arrives at a decision, for which he gives the reason (ratio decidendi). OBITER DICTUM The judge may go on get someone write learning and conditioning to speculate about what his decision would or might have been if the facts of the how to on a play essay, case had been different. This is an online cheap 3 review obiter dictum. The binding part of a judicial decision is the ratio decidendi. An obiter dictum is a critique paper essay, not binding in later cases because it was not strictly relevant to the matter in issue in the original case. However, an obiter dictum may be of persuasive (as opposed to binding) authority in later cases. A difficulty arises in that, although the judge will give reasons for his decision, he will not always say what the characterizing, ratio decidendi is, and it is then up to a later judge to elicit the ratio of the case. There may, however, be disagreement over what the ratio is and there may be more than one ratio The Mauritian Legal System One feature that could be taken as the cornerstone of Mauritian legal procedure it is adversarial (or accusatorial) nature of the proceedings as contrasted with the inquisitorial nature of civil law systems.

At the apex of this adversarial system lies the how to write play, traditional picture of the English court an arena wherein a contest is waged between parties in which one emerges the winner. In the inquisitorial procedure the court takes charge of the case even to the extent of framing the cheap my essay, legal and factual issues to be disputed. In the adversarial system the parties dictate, within the constraints of traditional forms and packages such as writs, forms of action and write on a play, pleadings the form, content and online downstream, pace of proceedings. The pre-trial proceedings are arranged such that by the time of the trial each side should have gained as much information as possible both to support their own case and to exploit any weaknesses in the oppositions arguments. How To Write A Critique! The agent of the court (i.e. the judge) should stand back and buy research papers processing, wait for the case to proceed to trial. During the trial the judge in civil cases and the judge and jury in criminal cases should allow him/herself to be guided, at least initially, as to the relevance of questions of how to a critique paper on a play, fact and law by the parties advocates. The judge should take a procedural back seat and intervene only to ensure that fair play is operating or where the public interest is at stake. The proceedings are dominated by the advocates for Buy essays the parties with, as in the case of criminal cases, the a critique paper on a essay, prosecution trying to get someone write my paper and conditioning build a strong case against the defendant and the defence, in turn, endeavouring to demolish the write on a play, prosecutions case. Throughout this procedure witnesses are examined and cross-examined using a variety of tactics available to the skilled advocate. Some use subtle means to cause witnesses to react in a certain way, others use bullying tactics to obtain the same result from buy essay online cheap sukuk nervous participants. The success of on a essay, a case, therefore, often rests upon the ability of an advocate to manipulate proceedings and not just the weight of evidence.

As the eminent English commentator, Jacob (The Fabric of English Civil Justice (1987), p. 16) stated with respect to buy essay online sukuk civil cases, the adversarial system introduces an how to a critique on a play essay element of sportsmanship or gamesmanship into the conduct of online cheap downstream processing, civil proceedings, and it develops the propensity on the part of lawyers to indulge in procedural manoeuvres. The system rests upon a number of how to write a critique on a play, assumptions specifically that both parties are represented the lawyers representing each party are efficient and equally matched the lawyers will promote their clients interests. Lawyers do not owe a general duty to ensure that justice is done or to enable the court to buy essay online sukuk bonds find the truth. Their only obligation to a critique paper on a play essay the court is not to mislead the court on questions of law or fact. Papers Online Processing! But the adversarial system often produces unexpected and, according to some observers, unjust results due to the manner in which evidence can be presented. The outcome, therefore, hinges upon the events of the trial itself as much as the gathering of evidence beforehand, since the how to essay, courts only judge what is presented before them and, especially when juries are present, the way it is presented. Buy Essay Online Bonds! Proceedings in the English courts do not take the a critique essay, form of investigations into the matters brought before them, unlike the inquisitorial system which basically entails an examining judge conducting his or her own investigation, often in conjunction with organisations such as the police, before any trial takes place. The inquisitorial procedure appears more obviously oriented as a search for the truth, taking into account all aspects of the matter, and need essay characterizing theatre, consequently a substantial number of cases do not reach the trial stage. Those that do go to trial often reach that point with far greater certainty as to the outcome than in courts using the adversarial system. Paper! Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and buy essay cheap 3 review, order Brief overview on The Mauritian Legal System. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.

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Quoting and citing with blockquote , q , cite , and the cite attribute. NOTE: (6/11/2013) The definitions of cite and blockquote in HTML have changed. For the latest advice on using these elements refer to cite and blockquote – reloaded. Given HTML’s roots in the academic world, it should be no surprise that quoting is well-accommodated in the elements blockquote and q , with their optional cite attribute. In addition, there’s the cite element, which over the last nine years went from ‘semantic orphan element made good’ to one of the more contentious elements in HTML5.

Let’s power up the endoscope and examine the scarring, starting with blockquote . Block quotes can contain more than just paragraphs… Historically, adding the source of a blockquote was a semantic conundrum. If you add it as content of the blockquote , then semantically it would become part of the quote, right? blockquote (and q ) have a cite attribute for how to write on a, the URL of the quote’s source, to provide context. Need Do My. That’s hidden data, however, and despite the potential for exposing the cite attribute via CSS and/or JS, that’s not as useful as a visible link. 2012-02-14 Hixie has given his feedback on my email, and it seems like our footer citations are still invalid. The official recommendation is to put the blockquote in a figure and add attribution in figcaption . Read the whole thread as there are some interesting comments. How To A Critique Paper On A Play. I’ll wait for the dust to cheap write fit in, settle a little yet… Default q support requires on :before and a critique play, :after Webkit support has been weak, with and '' hard-coded until Safari 5.1 and Chrome 11. Ref: WebKit bugs 6503 (fixed) and 3234 (new).

Opera is buggy if you nest q to a greater depth than quote pairs in help, your quotes property (test case) “Correct” punctuation is an on a, intricate topic and varies depending on language, but it generally involves these characters: If you’re using the charset UTF-8 (and you should be), we recommend you use the actual characters if possible, rather than the Unicode escapes in CSS or the entities in HTML. You can enter most of these using the keyboard — e.g. “ is Opt - [ on Mac, Alt + 0147 on Windows, and AltGr + V on Linux. Avoid using , ' or ` in place of “” and buy research cheap downstream processing, ‘’. The “narrow no-break space” is used inside French guillemets. Most languages alternate between two kinds of punctuation as quotes are nested, such as “” and a critique play, ‘’ in English. To specify nested quote pairs in CSS, we would write this: Unfortunately, browsers use the last quote pair in the quotes property for get someone my paper learning, more deeply nested quotations. In addition, Opera will use the wrong quote characters if you have more nested q than your quotes property defines quoting levels for (Opera quotes bug test case). Make sure you have enough levels by repeating quote pairs as necessary: WebKit had and '' hard-coded in the browser stylesheet until Safari 5.1 and Chrome 11, which prevented q:before and write play, q:after from working.

The workaround is to define opening and toy story, closing punctuation manually, then override with open-quote and close-quote . While it’s a little more involved, that’s why we use this CSS on HTML5 Doctor: A more traditional English blockquote style uses an how to a critique paper on a play, opening quote character before each paragraph of the quotation and a closing quote character on the last paragraph. Buy Essay Online Cheap Sukuk Bonds. You can do that with this CSS, but you’ll need to use p for a critique paper play, the blockquote ’s content. When quoting a foreign language, we use the quotation marks of the surrounding language, so a Japanese quote in an English sentence still uses English quotation marks: All he knows how to say in Japanese is ???????? “??????” (I don’t understand). If you’re dealing with multilingual content, you can specify the buy research papers cheap downstream processing, quotes property per-language: You can learn more about this CSS in the specification: CSS Generated Content Module Level 3. Okay, it’s time to put the rubber gloves on: cite is up next. cite ’s rise to paper play essay, stardom as the semantic super-element # cite snorts too much semantics, checks into do my theatre rehab # 2011-06-29 : It seems our long-running convention at HTML5 Doctor of using footer for attribution inside a blockquote is in keeping with the footer part of the spec, but not with the blockquote part. We’re investigating… 2011-07-03 : Hixie confirmed that our use of footer is currently non-conforming — footer can currently only be included in blockquote if it’s quoted content. However, the phrase “content inside a blockquote must be quoted from another source” also forbids other common changes and additions to block quotes, so I’m going to write a critique on a play essay, see if it can be changed. 2011-07-10 : I wrote an article blockquote problems and solutions about these problems, and initial feedback from Hixie is that there are legitimate issues, and he’ll review feedback via the WHATWG email list. So, please do that! You can also leave feedback in the comments here or ping me on Twitter (@boblet).

Also, don’t miss Jeremy Keith’s excellent commentary “Citation needed” on the issue (watch out for get someone my paper learning and conditioning, those cite s though ;) ) 2011-09-23 : I’ve added keyboard shortcuts for punctuation characters to the punctuation table, for default (typically US) keyboards. Write A Critique Play Essay. 2012-02-14 Added a note about Hixie’s reply to the article. This article was written by write learning and conditioning, Oli Studholme . How To Write A Critique Essay. He works as a developer for service: Buy essays …, Information Architects, Inc. in Tokyo, Japan. He wrote “Beginning HTML5 and CSS3—The Web Evolved” (Apress) with Rich Clark, Divya Manian, and write paper on a, Christopher Murphy. Need Help Do My Essay Theatre. He also writes at and tweets as @boblet. ????!^^ 70 Responses on how to play the article “Quoting and citing with blockquote , q , cite , and cheap, the cite attribute” FWIW, now shows a warning if you use the cite attribute:

Warning: The cite attribute on the blockquote element is not supported by browsers yet. (See what I did there?) Great article. One thing though: the essay, second example in the list of historical cite uses seems a bit odd. You say that it’s not valid in HTML5, but then later in the article you give the exact same example as being a valid one! Having read the example again and again, I’m pretty convinced it is a valid one… zOMG, people actually made it to the comment form?

I applaud you, sirs! @Mathias — oh yeah, I should have mentioned that. Thanks! Still, if you’re using it for your own nefarious purposes don’t let a validator warning stop you! ;) @Dylan — D’oh, I must have been in auto-pilot mode when I did that. Thanks to your eagle eyes it’s now updated (with a shoutout) Also, courtesy of a prompt from @iandevlin, here is the TL;DR version: blockquote , q and cite are cool yo. But cite is only for titles (not pplz). blockquote + footer ftw! ;) Nice article! Correction: The Japanese language example has an extra q end tag. Very good article!

I had missed the part about footer inside of write my paper learning, blockquote before. But I’m not sure about your ”nyan”-example: In Japanese cats say q lang=ja-latnnyan/q Is that really a proper use of the how to a critique paper play essay, q -element? What’s the source of the “quotation”? The Japanese language? I think we should use this:

In Japanese cats say span lang=ja-latnnyan/span In Japanese cats say i lang=ja-latnnyan/i And then we might want to add quotation marks as well. I just noticed some cleaver use of scoped style -elements in the article. Very appropriate – in a way – although it doesn’t really work in any browsers yet, but – I’m sorry to say – not valid! At least that’s what the Buy essays …, W3C validator says (among other things). Glad to see a solution to this. For a long time, I’ve just been using a cite element (without wrapping p) in the blockquote, which isn’t particularly accurate. I can update ReMarkable to use this method instead. For some personal reflection on practical use of the abbr, dfn and cite elements (which all quickly fall into the “semantics for the sake of semantics” problem you describe), see my article Me, Myself and I — or: Abbreviations, Definitions Citations Revisited”

@Zev #038; Bertil — I must be slow today, have edited that example six times so far _ @Bertil — I think style scoped is in WebKit nightlies now (if not close) @Bertil #038; Kroc — see the how to write a critique paper essay, addition at the top of the article. I need to online, email the list about it as IRC feedback was a little divided. There’s a decent argument for this pattern, so now I have to make it :) Also, good article Kroc. I read it while writing this. I had a quick discussion with Oli about how to a critique on a play essay using the Person Schema with blockquote to add some semantic meaning to the Author’s name. You can check out Essay Writing, my original gist and Oli’s fork which includes a few improvements and comments. Sadly I’m one of those who used the cite / incorrectly for the attributing the person to write paper on a essay, the quotation… time to go back and fix that one! Thanks for Essay Writing Buy essays, the clarification, now bookmarked for the reference and reminder when needed! Also, good article Kroc. I read it while writing this.

Indeed. I’d like to see that article by Kroc here at HTM5 Doctor. It would fit in very well. And then I’d get to comment on it (there are a few points I – probably/possibly – disagree with). The suggestions in my article came directly from writing and editing a few megs worth of raw text used on my website, which bought up lots of edge-cases and curious questions about play semantics; so whilst I wouldn’t say my choices would suit everybody, they have at Essay Writing service: … least been trialled in a critique paper play essay, a background of text. My complaint about the get someone learning and conditioning, ABBR article you published here on HTML5Doctor was essentially that you weren’t following your own advice, as I know that I practically went insane trying to use those rules on megs of text before I came up with my own to take back control of my sanity.

But, I will definitely say that cite still remains the weaker out of the three and how to on a play essay, I appreciate this article for being far more square. If you would like, my article could be further adapted withfeedback from the Writing Buy essays, doctors to better suit a broader audience. I strongly believe that a key part of write on a essay, learning HTML5 is learning HTML4 *properly* and eschewing spans and divs for semantics where possible. What I can’t seem to get my head around, is whether links should go inside or outside of the cite-elements. Online Toy Story. I.E., should you write. I lean towards the second, as you cite the work, and you link to that. The naughty question… because HTML5 “forbids” us (which I have never respected) to use the cite for author, how do we declare the author of something.

I never understood why we didn’t created a “person” or “author” element at the same time cite had been “clarified”. That depends on whether or not you are citing the link or linking the citation. If you are quoting the movie Aladdin and linking to the Wikipedia article, a href= rel=nofollowciteAladdin/cite/a Here, the citation is being linked to the Wikipedia article. If you are quoting the Wikipedia article for the movie Aladdin: citea href= rel=nofollowAladdin/a/cite

Here, the link is being cited. Great article Oli, thanks! @William — cite outside a for me, because then cite logically contains the cited work’s title and a link to it. This’d give you better info if you e.g. A Critique Paper On A Essay. make a script scraping for cite d works. Write My Essay. However Charles’ take on it is also good.

@all — I’m following up on using footer in blockquote . How To Write A Critique On A Play Essay. I think it’s perfectly cromulent, but we probably need Hixie to weigh in as one of the element’s definitions will need to be changed. Loved the learning, article. How To Paper On A Play Essay. It’s like “perfect”. I didn’t know all this. Now I will use this method to make my blockquotes and cites. Thanks for writing this :) Massive article, i would say blockquote is greatly artistered is cheap, this article.

While I applaud the noble efforts to make the web more semantic I am sorry to break the bad news: only essay, standaristas who blog will ever correctly use the blockquote, q and buy essay online toy story 3 review, cite elements. How To A Critique Paper On A Essay. The rest of the world has trouble with the buy essay online 3 review, correct usage of even the most basic of HTML elements. And even then the standarista community can’t agree what is the correct usage and what’s not. This is similar to the header and write a critique paper on a play essay, footer elements that are so generic people will use them for all kinds of purposes, thus obliterating any real-world usage (e.g. when writing screen-reading software) you really didn’t break a big secret. What is interesting in this discussion is not if people will markup by , hand their html for how to a critique on a play essay, quotes. They will not.

OK. This is set. What implementers can do with HTML quote features is a lot more interesting. A few use cases. 1. Get Someone My Paper. Select a text on how to write a critique paper a Web page, bookmarklet to get someone write my paper learning and conditioning, publish on a blog. I did it.

A prototype. 2. Select a piece of book in a ereader, and publish to how to write on a essay, your blog, with all the markup already done. 3. Mailing list threading. 4. Online forum threading. 1. Creating a quote engine that will index online all quotes and then able to answer questions such as, give me all the quotes by Victor Hugo. Karl, the problem is online cheap, that if the markup pattern is not widely used, writing software that depends on it is useless. Write Paper Play Essay. How many quotes will you be able to Essay Writing service: Buy essays …, spider on how to write a critique play essay the internet if you depend on write my paper the cite tag?

Not many. All of write a critique on a essay, your examples rely on correct usage. Of course this is a chicken and egg problem. Papers Online Downstream. If HTML would be taught properly in schools in the future etc. etc. @Wolf — I agree with you that the how to write a critique play, problem is education, so I’m puzzled by your cynicism in your comments above. That’s what we’re trying to do on HTML5 Doctor, after all! :) Also, you missed two very large and important groups: software (e.g. DreamWeaver) and get someone write my paper learning, tool makers (e.g. editing toolbars in how to a critique paper play essay, CMSs), and online bonds, service providers (e.g. academic journal tools). How To Write A Critique On A. I try to follow the advice a wise sage once gave me, just do the best you can. In some small way I hope people reading this article can benefit from it! @All — I’ve made some changes to papers online cheap processing, the article regarding the ongoing footer in blockquote saga. It looks like the spec will change, so please chime in with your feedback and ideas!

Once again, you’ve made my day. How To A Critique On A. Thanks for the great info!! Cite is simply one of the most problematic tags in HTML5 at the moment. Essay Service:. I get all other, but this one always makes me think way too much to be used naturally. I’m currently working out the system to semantically markup works cited in a few of my articles, but it seems so damn complicated with all those changes and “cite wars” … duh. Also I notices recently that wikipedia is how to write a critique play essay, using normal ol/li for their references as they often just link to sources without naming them. Just grabbed the styling you’ve placed above and had all sorts of buy essay cheap, issues with special characters. Rather than have another run into this again I thought I could repay your help in write a critique, a small way and offer my edits:

Thank you for everyone’s hard work with this issue, can’t wait to find out the resolution of the footer inclusion! @lizlux — we live to serve :) happy to hear it helped. @Marcin — needing to overthink can be a sign that you should just go with the buy essay cheap bonds, simplest option ;) but yeah I hear ya! @Jon — the character escapes in your comment will work fine, but you shouldn’t need escapes if you’re using UTF-8. How To On A Essay. Check your page’s encoding and confirm the browser is online, getting UTF-8. Check your text editor is how to write paper play, saving UTF-8. Finally I always use: as the first line of my CSS files. Need Help Do My Theatre. If you have a 100% UTF-8 workflow you should only need character escapes for how to on a play essay, characters with special meaning in CSS, which Mathias Bynens covers in CSS character escape sequences. Hixie has given his feedback on write learning and conditioning my email, and it seems like our footer citations are still invalid. How To Write Paper Essay. The official recommendation is to put the cheap bonds, blockquote in a figure and add attribution in figcaption . Read the whole thread as there are some interesting comments. I’ll wait for the dust to settle a little before updating this article (and possibly every spec quote on HTML5 Doctor :| ) I’m a bit confused as I’m using the H5BP template framework and the CSS file included?

I can see the meta charset is set to utf-8 there and in both the web.config and .htaccess? However, this comment is in the web.config, should this be changed? !-- use utf-8 encoding for anything served text/plain or text/html -- mimeMap fileExtension=.css mimeType=text/css/ Thanks nonetheless, all help is greatly appreciated! @Jon — The settings in how to a critique play, your text editor and .htaccess file are the most important, as these will trump other declarations. Confirm the pages on your site are UTF-8 and online toy story 3 review, are being served as such first, using that link I posted or Firefox’s Page Info dialog. After that you can work backwards to see if something is breaking your UTF-8 workflow. That academic-style journal citation is all kinds of trouble.

How are you supposed to distinguish between: — cite for the name of the article being cited (which should—in my reference style of choice—be recte and “in double quotes”); — cite for book names (which should be italicised and not quoted); — cite for journals (of which only the how to, journal name itself should be italicised and Essay service: Buy essays …, quoted, with issue number, etc., being recte and not quoted); and. — cite for monograph series (which should be recte and not quoted)? In your example here, only the name of the journal is cite d. That means the article referred to is not marked up as a cited work at all; and how to write a critique paper, also that identifying information such as volume number (which is necessary to cheap my essay, identify the how to a critique on a, source) is put outside the buy research online, citation. If HTML5 wants to cater to write a critique on a essay, academic citations, it needs to get its working hat on and add something like a type attribute ( cite type=article/monograph/journal/series/etc. ) that we can style our CSS by. And it needs to come up with an author and/or source tag, too. :-] But I’m not sure about online cheap bonds your ”nyan”-example: Is that really a proper use of the q-element? What’s the source of the “quotation”?

The Japanese language? I’d say that’s valid and proper enough—the source is, of a critique play, course, the cat! ;-) ??? ?? ??? ??? ????? Kanojo wa Nihongo ni neko wa nyan to naku to itta. See anything missing there? ;-) (Ironic that my carefully [re]constructed quotes for the Japanese example, which I’d made sure to mark as lang=ja ended up being English quotes after all! Is lang stripped/not allowed from comments?) @Janus — thank you for need do my essay characterizing theatre, taking the time to format you code :)

How are you supposed to distinguish between… The class attribute for styling, microdata or RDFa for semantics. That means the article referred to is not marked up as a cited work at all; and also that identifying information such as volume number (which is necessary to identify the source) is put outside the citation. What would you expect to happen if this information was marked up? What is the use case, and what benefits would you get? If HTML5 wants to how to write a critique paper play essay, cater to cheap fit in, academic citations. I suspect academic citations of the type you’d like would be outside HTML5’s scope, but they can be addressed with microdata or RDFa. like a type attribute that we can style our CSS by. The class attribute suffices for this.

it needs to come up with an author and/or source tag, too. re: author , Hixie has mentioned a potential “credit” element for attribution, but is waiting to see how figure is used. For authorship you could use b or span , with semantics added via e.g. the hCard microformat or microdata. re: source , you can use a in the surrounding prose, or blockquote ’s cite attribute for an explicit source, if it has a URL. Regarding that accursed cat example, I think I’ve corrected the mistake you spotted and fixed your comment (let me know if not), and how to, will add lang to the allowed attributes list. Can’t remember why I mixed q and “”, probably just to show you can, as the previous nested example is all q . damn uuu neko-chan! :) The class attribute for and conditioning, styling, microdata or RDFa for semantics. What would you expect to happen if this information was marked up? What is the use case, and on a essay, what benefits would you get? Well, what’s the purpose of marking something up with cite to begin with? Styling is Essay Writing service:, one thing, of course, but semantically, in how to on a play essay, the given example, what’s being cited is the article, not the papers downstream processing, book.

The book is write a critique on a play essay, what you need if you want to toy story, read the how to write a critique paper, article. I guess the buy essay cheap toy story, use case would mostly be for something like extracting HTML5 markup to XML or something similar, where only the citations themselves would be kept. I admit, it’s a bit far-fetched, and a critique paper on a, probably outside the scope of HTML5. But for scholarly publishing online, it would be great if it were there. If ever I do need to venture in that direction, it looks like I’ll have some reading to do, catching up (read: learning the basics) on RDFa, hCard microformats, microcards, etc.—all technologies that I am woefully ignorant of. (As for poor ????, the mistake I spotted was simply that the buy essay online cheap sukuk, word[s] “????” was/were missing in the kanji version of the examples, but present in the romaji and English versions.) what’s the purpose of marking something up with cite to begin with? Indeed :) There are things we could do with formatted academic citations, but currently I’m unaware of anyone actually doing anything, which makes cite merely a semantic and medium-independent way of indicating the how to a critique on a play essay, work being cited. Sure, visually this means italics, but because we’re using a semantic element a screen reader could also convey this via inflection, for example, which i or span class=cite-journal wouldn’t. Once people start actually doing stuff (= real world use cases), there’ll be some cowpaths for WHATWG to help do my characterizing theatre, consider paving. For those to whom academic citation is important, I recommend investigating the vocabularies for a critique on a essay, Article and Book (microdata), or the Bibliographic Ontology specification (RDFa). There’s also the citation microformat working page.

We’ve got articles introducing microdata and microformats here too. Thanks again re: that cat. I don’t get it. Why this urge to always make things more complicated than they actually are? All you need is a single CSS rule and papers online cheap downstream processing, all your “blockquote cite-attribute is not visible” problems are solved!

Yep, life can be this simple… How should I cite a person as the source of a quote? Is this valid? “Think of secret lagoons, unexplored coves, sparkling turquoise waters, fine white sand, spectacular limestone karst, fresh seafood and lovely people - these things are just a fraction of what you can experience in El Nido. Coron is a one of the best diving destination in the world. They have the cleanest lake and write paper play essay, some amazing landscape and buy essay bonds, seascape. Puerto Princesa City on the other hand offers one of the New 7 Wonders of the World. How To On A Play. The Underground River tour is just out of this world.” What would be the best practice for semantic markup in this case? Shouldn’t the name of the article be cited as well, like with: liciteThe information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the amplitude of movement/cite, Paul M. Fitts (1954). citeJournal of Experimental Psychology/cite, volume 47, number 6, June 1954, pp. Cheap Write My Essay Fit In. 381–391/li

Wasn’t there discussion about a main tag? If that gets added, it’s a great place to store the actual quotation in a quoteblock, You know the golden rule, don’t you boy? Those who have the gold make the write a critique essay, rules. - Crazy hunch-backed old guy from the cheap write my essay fit in, movie.

Somewhat off topic, or maybe not. I’ve seen it argued that the citation should be placed *outside* the blockquote inasmuch as the citation isn’t strictly part of the material being quoted. Fussy semantics. This is probably a dumb question, and forgive me if it’s been asked in the comments already (I figure the difficulty of paper, ignoring me is a lot less than the difficulty of online cheap processing, reading the entire comment thread), but why not suggest that the HTML5 spec define cite to be use case 3 rather than use case 2, with the subparts of the name of the write on a essay, work and the name of the author each optional but another pair of tags for buy research papers cheap, them? E.g. citehypothetical-author-tagJohn Doe/hypothetical-author-tag, hypothetical-title-tagReconciling Purity and Practicality/hypothetical-title-tag/cite or q…you can fool some of the people all of the time…/qcitegt;hypothetical-author-tagAbe Lincoln/hypothetical-author-tag/cite or citehypothetical-title-tagAn Example of the how to paper, Original Purpose of the Cite Tag/hypothetical-title-tag/cite Would something like this not satisfy both the purist specifiers who object to cheap my essay fit in, cite being used for three different things and the practical authors who object to effectively being told that citations other than the name of how to write a critique paper on a play, a work are semantically irrelevant? Sure, it is a change from the original intended meaning, but it seems to me like it would meet everyone’s actual needs. Oops, not used to get someone my paper learning and conditioning, writing and how to write a critique paper on a play essay, as lt; and ampgt;, managed to get most of them backwards… let’s try again… citehypothetical-author-tagJohn Doe/hypothetical-author-tag, hypothetical-title-tagReconciling Purity and get someone write my paper learning, Practicality/hypothetical-title-tag/cite or q…you can fool some of the people all of the time…/qcitelt;hypothetical-author-tagAbe Lincoln/hypothetical-author-tag/cite or citehypothetical-title-tagAn Example of the Original Purpose of the how to write paper play, Cite Tag/hypothetical-title-tag/cite Kudos to this article author. Such a great insight on different kinds of usage of blockquote element.

This is a nice read. For those who need to understand basic blockquotes, here is my article Using quotes and blockquotes. On “extra” (or extraneous!) info within blockquote. Use an aside tag to stick in references etc? Actually your idea of using a footer is better; but why not an aside as well or instead?

To much clutter/confusion? Leave blockquote definition “must be quoted from another source” as is, but add, “except where tag semantics indicate otherwise.” The clutter/confusion will inevitably be expressed somewhere. The current spec just means; not in cheap write fit in, blockquote! ‘Cause its saying if your going to use blockquote so it looks nice and gives meta-information you want to enclose it in a figure tag, and use figcaption for the stuff about blockquote. Basically the spec is inventing a compound tag with this suggestion, which will lead to clutter/confusion, and questions like; why can’t I put all this stuff in blockquote? When a quotation is inside an how to write a critique paper on a play essay, article, it is get someone, reasonable to use figure as the how to a critique on a, outer wrapper and figcaption as the attribution wrapper. But how about buy essay online cheap bonds a list of quotations which are not inside an article? They don’t serve the on a play essay, purpose of illustrating/annotating the context (because there is no context), so figure and figcaption can’t be the Essay Writing Buy essays, wrappers. How do we mark up a list of quotations in such a case?

I agree with Matej Cepl about the academic citation. “The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the amplitude of write a critique on a play essay, movement” should be in cite, since that is the work being cited. Writing Service: …. You wouldn’t, in general, cite an entire journal. And, even if you did, you should perhaps be including the volume and issue numbers in cite. I don’t know if you noticed or not, but as of this writing, the ‘blockquote + figcaption inside figure’ style is given as an example on the HTML5 blockquote spec page. Guess this is the best option we’ve got for now. Something terrible has happened! Or possibly something great. I’m not sure. The semantics of the cite element has changed in the latest version of the Editor’s Draft of the HTML5(.1) specification. Now it says.

The cite element represents a reference to a creative work. It must include the title of the work or the write a critique on a essay, name of the author(person, people or organization) or an URL reference, which may be in an abbreviated form as per cheap my essay fit in, the conventions used for the addition of paper on a play essay, citation metadata. and the following example is given: pIn the words of citeCharles Bukowski/cite - qAn intellectual says a simple thing in essay theatre, a hard way. How To Write A Critique Paper Essay. An artist says a hard thing in a simple way./q/p Hence, now it is buy essay online, again allowed to how to on a, use cite to mark up names, at least when referring to an author of get someone write my paper learning and conditioning, a ‘creative work’. Why has this been changed? Will the change survive? What will be the case in the HTML5 Recommendation planned for next year (2014)? Why has this been changed?

Will the change survive? What will be the case in the HTML5 Recommendation planned for next year (2014)? Thank you for your response, Steve. I think I prefer the old meaning of the cite element (the one only permitting titles). The reason is how to write a critique paper on a, that I am really fond of the exactness, cleanness, simplicity, and ease-of-use that version brought to need do my essay characterizing theatre, the HTML5 specification. I think of it mainly in this way: In written English, as well as in many other languages, you use italics for a number of different reasons. In hypertext documents, you can embed information about the how to write a critique, precise reason why a phrase is in italics: * emgt for Essay service: …, stress emphasis, possibly the a critique on a play essay, most common case. Often alters (or clarifies) the meaning of the text. * citegt for titles (books, articles, films, …). * dfngt for the defining instance of a term.

* igt (with class attribute) for phrases in languages different from the do my essay theatre, language of the surrounding text. * igt (with class attribute) for Latin names of a critique on a play essay, species. * a few other cases. I think this is wonderful. In this case, it is write learning, extremely easy to a critique, use cite right — it’s used for titles, nothing else. It also makes perfect sense to online downstream, have a specific element for this purpose, since you usually want to display titles in a different way visually (typically in italics), so you certainly need some markup here. And why not make it semantic, and make the wonderful list above come true? As noted in the article (to which this is a comment), HTML 2.0 gives exactly this meaning to the cite element.

Unfortunately, the how to paper play essay, text in need do my essay theatre, other HTML specifications and proposals is more diffuse: In HTML+, an academic citation is given as the only example. In HTML 3.0, the write a critique paper on a play essay, text talks about need essay characterizing theatre ‘citations’ and ‘italics’, and the only example is how to on a, a book title. In HTML 3.2, ‘citations or references’ is used to describe the element. The same applies to HTML 4.01, and the examples (quoted in the article) are about referring to external sources (in one case, using a custom ID syntax). Personally, I feel that the use of cite in “my” way (the HTML 2.0 and the original HTML5 way) is online cheap bonds, semantically different from the one about paper giving ‘references’ to external sources. (It also happens to be two different things typographically: titles are usually in italics, while ‘references’ might be given in various formats.) So I don’t really like the idea to allow both of write learning, these uses: it would make the element, essentially, meaningless from a semantic point of view. (And even if we ignore the part about how to write on a play essay semantics, it would not be painless to use the element in actual web pages when it comes to the default formatting, since book titles should be in italics while names of people shouldn’t, generally.) Marking up titles is important, generally. For instance, the text.

doesn’t mean the need help characterizing theatre, same thing as. “citeViolence/cite (=a book or an article, perhaps?) is good.” It’s a feature of written human language, essentially, that titles should be marked up in some way, in the same vein as stress emphasis and how to write a critique play essay, defining instances. Giving references in an academic paper, or referring to buy essay bonds, a person or URL, doesn’t feel like the same thing (and generally requires different formatting). At least not exactly . Additionally, the how to write play, current HTML5 text apparently considers it to be a ‘creative work’ if a person mutters something to himself.

I guess my main points are the following: The restrictive version of the buy essay online cheap sukuk bonds, definition. * is much easier to apply right; * has a very precise semantics; and. * is very useful in practice, since you do need some markup to affect the formatting. The new version of the write a critique play, definition. * is used for many different cases, and service: Buy essays, it is write a critique play essay, not as easy to tell if a borderline application is appropriate or not; * can mean a number of similar, but not identical, things; and. * can be useful in fit in, practice, but you might need different class es to make only how to write a critique paper on a, some of the instances be rendered in italics. Of course, since the new version is more inclusive, you (may) get more markup, and hence more semantics.

But, again, a computer program can’t tell the different types of applications from Writing service: each other (title, URL, name, full citation, ISO ID?). How To Write Paper Play. Well, they are all references, in buy essay cheap sukuk, some sense, so I certainly agree you do gain something, but we will “never” be able to mark up everything anyway. Do we really need an element for marking up every possible ‘citation’ or ‘reference’ in a broad sense? Well, certainly not for class -less formatting, at least. Sorry my post became so long…

I think I prefer the how to write paper on a play essay, old meaning of the element (the one only permitting titles). The reason is that I am really fond of the online downstream, exactness, cleanness, simplicity, and ease-of-use. When updating the definition of cite we looked at how it is used and how authors want to use it. I understand the allure of a definition that restricts cite to titles of works, but it has not and write a critique paper, is not being used for this purpose in the majority of buy research online cheap downstream, instances. So the theoretical purity of the restriction does not translate into usage in the real world, so it of little use to potential consumers of the semantics.

you usually want to display titles in a different way visually (typically in italics), so you certainly need some markup here. The visual presentation should not effect the semantics of the write a critique essay, element. Buy Research Cheap Downstream Processing. if you look at how search engines such as Google (used for URLs in write a critique play essay, search results not italicized) or Bing (used for URLs in need essay theatre, search results not italicized) use cite, they override the on a play essay, default visual presentation. Does this mean its no longer a citation? * is used for many different cases, and it is not as easy to get someone write and conditioning, tell if a borderline application is appropriate or not; * can mean a number of how to a critique on a play essay, similar, but not identical, things; and. * can be useful in practice, but you might need different classes to Writing Buy essays, make only some of the instances be rendered in italics. It is used for paper play, one case: The cite element represents a reference to a creative work. The information that reference consists of is broader, but its broadness means that it actually reflects usage in the real world. I would suggest the granularity you seek is better provided using metadata (microdata, RDFa), as it is known to be useful and consumed in practice. Also the use of classes to provide such granularity is fine and encouraged if its useful for the author: Authors can use the class attribute to extend elements, effectively creating their own elements, while using the most applicable existing “real” HTML element, so that browsers and other tools that don’t know of the extension can still support it somewhat well.

This is the tack used by microformats, for example. Thank you again for Writing service: Buy essays …, your time, Steve. I do understand your arguments and they certainly make sense. I suppose, to some extent, this it is a choice one has to write a critique paper essay, make: either you make the standard theoretically simple, beautiful, and logical, or you make the best you can without ‘breaking’ millions of , existing hypertext documents. If I understand this correctly (yes, for some reason I do find the new text harder to understand), the new version is how to a critique paper essay, strictly a ‘superset’ of the old one, in the sense that every valid use of cite according to the last version is also valid according to the new version? For instance, on and conditioning my website, I have a navbar (a UL with a set of LIs each containing a single hyperlink). One of the a critique on a essay, links is citeAndlos langtan/cite ; this link will take you to the homepage of my (Swedish-language) book Andlos langtan . Write. This was perfectly in agreement with the old version of the spec., but I suppose it is still valid? Although the navbar doesn’t contain a quote from the how to write a critique paper, book, this LI certainly is “a reference to a creative work [that, in addition,] include[s] the Essay service: …, title of the work”. So, in write a critique play essay, practice, I do not have to Essay Buy essays, change any of my habits or existing markup due to how to a critique paper essay, this change: I can still use cite to mark up titles of cheap downstream processing, things.

I don’t have to use it to mark up names next to quotes, etc. Write Paper Play. (although I certainly could start doing that now). I just recalled an earlier version of the HTML5 text from buy research online cheap downstream 2008. Here’s yet another version of the paper play, meaning of cite : The cite element represents a citation: the source, or reference, for a quote or statement made in buy research cheap, the document. This is […] wrong, because the title and the name are not references or citations: pMy favourite book is how to write on a play, citeThe Reality Dysfunction/cite According to that text, my habit of marking up titles would be wrong. I don’t know when or why that old text was changed to “my favourite”, which is my essay fit in, 100 % incompatible with the old one. In terms of how to paper essay, valid types of applications, it seems like the new version (maybe we should call it “the third one”?) includes both the old one (the one from 2008: “the source, or reference, for a quote or statement made in the document”) and my paper, my favourite (titles of stuff), as well as other kinds of ‘references’ to ‘creative works’ (including sounds someone mutters to himself).

Is it correct to say that the how to write paper play essay, new version is the Buy essays, most inclusive one ever in an HTML specification? (yes, for some reason I do find the new text harder to understand), the new version is strictly a ‘superset’ of the old one, in the sense that every valid use of according to the last version is also valid according to the new version? Correct. If the text is unclear please do file a bug on how to a critique paper on a the HTML spec, it’s an editors draft and Essay Buy essays, there for people to write a critique play essay, comment on and help improve. So, in practice, I do not have to change any of my habits or existing markup due to this change: I can still use to mark up titles of things.

I don’t have to use it to mark up names next to quotes, etc. (although I certainly could start doing that now). There is an example in the spec: pWho is need help do my characterizing, your favorite doctor (in citeDoctor Who/cite)?/p Is it correct to on a essay, say that the new version is the most inclusive one ever in an HTML specification? Well, I would like to think it’s inclusiveness is better defined and papers cheap processing, explained than previous versions which were somewhat musrky. Styling is a matter for CSS and does not independently constitute “semantics”. How To Paper On A Play Essay. However, it is advisable to style HTML elements according to buy research cheap downstream, their semantic differentiation within the a critique on a essay, document. Should one wish to present citations for authors (as opposed to works) differently, microdata (and perhaps RDFa?) has itemprop=author. This is equivalent to the rel=author link relation but not restricted to hyperlinks. The CSS attribute selector is as follows: Or, for Essay Buy essays, citations that include links to author pages:

As Steve demonstrates, uses of the cite element are many and varied. This is in accordance with its broad remit in the English Language, which includes works and write on a essay, authors. citeWikipedia/cite states that a citation can be from a published or unpublished source. However, citeyou/cite are welcome to say Wikipedia is a load of dingo's kidneys, and I'd feel duty bound to buy research online cheap downstream, publish emboth/em views on citeMy Blog/cite. @Heydon Pickering: I’d use However, emyou/em are welcome. It’s stress emphasis. I don’t know what ‘creative work’ “you” is referring to. I’ve always used cite as a source or a reference or to give credit for a quotation.

Never simply to how to write a critique play, mark up a title unless it was a source. Help Do My Characterizing Theatre. So to me this, “cite Aladdin/cite is a great movie, even after 73 viewings. A Critique On A. Aren’t kids great?,” makes no sense. If cite was strictly for Writing …, titles, why not use title instead? Isn’t that more semantic? Also, would have been nice if there were some useful attributes on how to a critique paper cite like cite source=”author” href=”” … source could be title, book, movie, play, url, article, post, etc. Sorry about the re-post. For the cheap write my essay fit in, blockquote, why not redefine blockquote to be the container and q the write paper play, actual quote, followed by write my paper learning, a cite? For example, pThis is on a play essay, a longer block quote./p pIt uses paragraph elements./p

That’s surely unnecessary markup? @Rich – Why is it “surely” unnecessary? The objective is to differentiate between information about the text that’s being quoted, and a citation that appears as part of the text that’s being quoted. Previously, blockquote was defined in a way that allowed that differentiation (although it was often misused). HTML 5.1 changes the online cheap processing, blockquote definition in paper essay, such a way that it is no longer even possible. The objective is to differentiate between information about the text that’s being quoted, and a citation that appears as part of the cheap sukuk bonds, text that’s being quoted.

do you have any data as to the frequency of this occurring? I suggest that the change in the HTML spec provides a much greater benefit as it covers a very frequent (57% of the time) pattern of how to write paper on a essay, citation information being included in a blockquote . @Steve – No I don’t. It’s just a principle. My guess is online cheap toy story 3 review, that it’s pretty rare. I guess I don’t really understand what the how to paper, problem is that the change is trying to solve.

If it’s just for the sake of paving a cow path then I doubt its utility, but I’m not particularly opposed to it. I suspect (again, no data) that the blockquote indentation rule tends to encourage authors to put the cite inside the blockquote, so I wonder whether an HTML5 endorsed way of permitting that might be sufficient to effect a change in authoring practice. Using the footer element inside the blockquote to contain metadata about the quote, including its citation seems both natural and pretty harmless since there should be no need to get someone and conditioning, use footer in the quote itself. Accordingly, my preference would be that the write a critique paper on a play, blockquote change was limited to permitting that. Wow, didn’t even know there is a *that* simple option to put beautiful quotes in the content, yes! :-)

Hey there, I was wondering if this is correct use for a list of blockquotes (as on a homepage testimonials slideshow) : Note to buy essay, moderators, please erase previous comment :) Thanks Dr. Steve. Is there a way to style blockquote in CSS so that it doesn’t include a line break in its execution? I don’t want extra lines between main text and a critique on a, blockquote. Regarding the use of downstream, a reference inside a blockquote element, I think contextual information should be outside, preferably as part of the part of the how to a critique paper on a essay, introduction, such as in ‘Regarding the blockquote element, the W3C HTML5 specification states:’ before the blockquote for your first example. I think this context-after approach is part of the overall inside-out approach to buy essay, information presentation that has been inherited from print, when it consisted of large tracts of text, interspersed with pictures and a critique play, tables placed in convenient places for layout, but not necessarily near the text to which it relates, and often not even on the same page. To me, the buy essay bonds, more sensible way of write a critique on a, presenting figures, tables and Writing, lists is to introduce them, giving its context, and optionally what the reader should look for in it. How To Paper Play. This is because if the cheap my essay fit in, figure or table is a part of the narrative, then it should be presented right at the appropriate context point.

It would also keep the how to write on a essay, reader focussed on why the figure or table is fit in, being presented. A picture may be worth a thousand words, but unless you guide a reader in on a essay, what to get someone write my paper learning, look for, they may well pick a thousand words that don’t fit with your purpose for the element. Also, people don’t want to write a critique play essay, waste their time, so they make very quick decisions about get someone and conditioning whether what is being presented needs to be read/viewed or not, so introducing its context helps them to make that decision. Some examples of introductions are: – ‘A young red pine, with visible roots due to how to write a critique paper, soil erosion:’ – ‘To identify yourself, bring any two of:’ – ‘The damage to the building, as viewed from the south-east corner, is:’ – ‘The sales for last five years, with year-on-year downturns shown in papers online, red, are:’. I know we have been trained to look first, then read the caption, but I think introducing context BEFORE a mass of how to write paper on a play essay, visual information serves readers better. The reader will then be more aware of the do my theatre, context that text after the element is write paper on a essay, focused upon. The other consequence of the more granular ‘chunkification’ of information in web content these days, is that there is no reason why a figure or table number is need do my essay, required, when there is a heading closely above it. How many web sites provide a table of how to write a critique paper on a, figures or tables to use that number?

The Web Evolved: A new book on buy essay online sukuk HTML5 CSS3 by Richard Clark, Oli Studholme, Christopher Murphy and Divya Manian. This site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 2.0 share alike license. Feel free to change, reuse modify and how to paper essay, extend it. Buy Research Online Cheap. Some authors will retain their copyright on how to a critique on a play essay certain articles. Copyright 2017 HTML5 Doctor.

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The Top 30 Arguments and write a critique paper play, Debates in Sports. Now, these aren’t arguments in the sense that they end up with Ron Artest in the stands viciously attacking the guy who didn’t throw the beer, or arguments that involve Charley Barkley mounting Shaq in an effort to preemptively establish dominance in their post-career broadcasting endeavors…because those are their arguments. That’s Shaq vs. Kobe, Marbury vs. Garnett, etc. What I want to look at are our arguments—those that are either all-encompassing (is it time for my essay, a BCS playoff?) or extremely relevant to a particular sport at current (Kobe vs. LeBron). These are the Top 30 Arguments and Debates in Sports , as argued by the fans.

He’s 35 and coming off knee surgery, he’s been through a relatively public divorce and he’s not won a major in three years. Is this it for Tiger? Amazingly, I actually think so. How To Write On A Play! Not because I think he’s mentally broken, but because I think he’s gotten old. Simple as that. We just missed the my paper and conditioning gradualism of the decline because he was away while it happened. 29.

Is the NFL Getting Soft with the Concussion Rules? As the number of ex-players in peril mounts, the NFL’s implementation of player protection grows stronger by the year. But are the concussion rules ruining the how to write a critique play game? Absolutely not. Player safety has to be at the core of any league so that A) it’s able to get someone write learning and conditioning, maintain itself throughout the how to write on a years without literally killing off a percentage of its participants, and B) I don’t feel bad watching it. And if we’ve learned anything from the NBA, it’s that sometimes getting a little softer can create a better product. By placing the emphasis on speed and agility, you’re more likely to see something you couldn’t do in your backyard. 28. Get Someone Write Learning And Conditioning! Can Soccer Become the Fifth Major Sport? This question has been asked since I was in how to write on a essay, grade school…and last year’s World Cup was the online toy story 3 review first time I felt the collective pulse of the nation budge even a little bit.

Not in the next 50 years, because even if the World Cup continues to a critique on a play essay, take off…that doesn’t really count, does it? The World Cup is like the Olympics—which is a substantial niche and nothing to do my essay characterizing, sneeze at—but it doesn’t constitute a fifth major sport anymore than figure skating does. Once every four years, it’s pretty darn interesting, but probably not enough so to support an annual season. Do we stick with the a critique paper play essay flawed yet immensely profitable BCS Bowl system? Or do we do what literally every fan of college football has been clamoring for since the implementation of the flawed yet immensely profitable BCS Bowl system? I admit that there are likely more intricacies to buy essay online cheap sukuk bonds, this than I realize (most probably dealing with television contracts), but come on. Should the how to a critique paper play No. 1 hope at the end of every collegiate season be a fallible national champion just so it forces the NCAA’s hand? It’s time for a playoff. 26. What Is the get someone write my paper learning Most Unbreakable Record in Sports?

About 99.9 percent of the a critique paper on a play essay applicants for the MURIS award (I actually really like that) have to Buy essays …, do with Wilt Chamberlain. And in my opinion, he wins. Different era, sure, but all records—be they from Favre, DiMaggio or Nicklaus—are subject to contextual argument. Can’t take it into consideration, at a critique paper play, least not in buy essay online bonds, regards to the MURIS. Wilt stands out to me. His 100 points can be touched—Kobe proved that—but under no circumstances can I see an NBA player averaging 50.4 points a game for a season ever again. Whether he was on the court or back at the hotel, Wilt scored a lot. Aka “CAA or NBA.” What is this generation of hoopsters about? What era are we looking at?

As I see things, there are emerging two separate factions within the association. One—the of-late derided—revolves around branding, personal accomplishment and some underlying sentiment of togetherness between players. The second seems more in line with our traditional concepts of how to a critique on a play, athletes: They play to be the best, and they play to win…but they also seem to respect (in some ways) the unwritten rules of the game. This is Dirk (who took less money to return to theatre, a Dallas team with no sure bet to write paper on a, win a title); this is Kobe (who is a more abrasive version of Dirk); and this is Derrick Rose and learning, Russell Westbrook (who are all about beating the heck out of paper on a, whoever is thought to be their superior). Both parties have some of the most skilled and competitive guys in the league, so I’m not necessarily advocating that one is online processing, ruining the game or anything, as this conversation tends to how to a critique paper on a, eventually have one-side emit.

That said, I prefer the guys I consider to be the Writing Buy essays traditionalists—the guys I think harbor some legitimate dislike for their opponents, for whom rings matter less than the opportunity to beat the best guys in the league and thereby prove their superiority. So again, in the latter group we’re looking at the Roses, the Kobes and write a critique paper essay, the Westbrooks, while the former sports basically everyone who came into buy essay online, the league between 2003 and a critique essay, 2004—LeBron, Bosh, Carmelo and sadly…I think Dwight Howard. 24. College Basketball One-and-Done Rule? This one may be eliminated or expanded within the new NBA CBA, but in the meantime… I actually like the rule for Essay Writing Buy essays …, the sole reason that I get a bigger stage to watch the top-tier NBA prospects on. If 10 of Anthony Davis’ high school games were televised this year, I probably would have watched each one. Next year, I’ll get to how to paper, see him 10 times at Kentucky. He won’t be an unknown by the time he hits the league. Only time when I don’t like the rule? When my team has a high draft pick and misses out on service: … a supremely talented kid who otherwise would have been available.

The DH was adopted by the American League in 1973, and most professional and collegiate leagues have followed some degree of suit. The DH should go. Seeing a pitcher step to the plate is one of the cooler parts of the game—both in terms of strategy and narrative—and somehow the National League seems just the a critique slightest bit purer for having their pitchers step up to need do my essay theatre, the plate. Some great arguments here from This one should probably be ranked a little higher, but I got excited to discuss. LeBron won’t touch Kobe’s career (which is how to a critique paper on a essay, kind of sad in a way, because he could’ve), but player to player—the individual effect on the game—it’s a whole different debate. I think this argument rages so strong because the debaters have never agreed to the terms.

Kobe wins on two out of three counts. Kobe will have the better career, but LeBron is currently the better player. The tiebreaker? As of June 2011—at his peak, Kobe Bryant has hit a higher level individually than LeBron has. That’s enough for me for now. Kobe Bryant is still the most polarizing player in write my essay fit in, the league…but for massively different reasons than he used to be. The answer is, to paper play, me, pretty clear—Kobe Bryant is on get someone learning the downside of his career. KB had lost a step (or two) as far back as two years ago, but there is still a hefty chunk of the how to write paper play essay population who either is too blinded with Laker-love to see it, or too defensive of anything Kobe to admit it. Frustrating, but at the same time it’s elevated this debate.

From Michael Farber, via Consider Crosby. No player since Wayne Gretzky has been better prepared for Essay Writing service: Buy essays …, greatness. He is skilled, tough and dependable. If Ovechkin thinks Crosby whines too much, he is tarring the how to on a play Penguins captain with a mostly outdated reputation that was established his rookie year and is way overblown. Buy Essay Online Cheap 3 Review! Crosby might loose (sic) his emotions too often, but bigger bellyachers in the NHL -- Anaheim's Teemu Selanne and a critique, Buffalo's Derek Roy , to name two -- generally get a free pass. (And never forget that Gretzky himself was not above a bit of buy essay online cheap toy story 3 review, strategic whining.)

Now consider Ovechkin. He's a force of nature, as improvisational as Crosby is programmed. The Capitals left winger is the most exciting player in the game since Gilbert Perreault , maybe even Bobby Orr , and if at times there appears there is not enough mustard in the world to smear on how to a critique paper play essay this guy, well, make ours with sauerkraut. First one I don’t have a strong opinion on get someone learning and conditioning because—and I’m now realizing that this might in how to on a play, fact be a mistake—I do not watch hockey. I’ll say Crosby, and let you all have at it below. 19.

The “Rule” or the “Spirit of the need do my essay characterizing Rule?” The tuck rule. Dwayne Rudd’s helmet-gate. A Critique! Calvin Johnson’s game-winning TD “drop.” Should a referee have the power to overrule the textbook if it’s clear that the textbook’s wrong? After much consideration, no. I stand in favor of the Rule. I actually sat through the Dwayne Rudd helmet fiasco defiantly swearing that I never would, but today—significantly calmer—I can admit that that’s shortsighted. A ref’s job is hard enough already, and the less you can leave up to their interpretation, the better.

Instant replay’s detractors say it slows down the game, and that human error is a part of what’s made things great in the past…while its advocates admonish those impatient individuals for not wanting to get the call right. As is frequently the case…change is good, and none of the online cheap major sports would be where they are today (lockouts) without it. You paid an inordinate amount of money for how to write paper play essay, that ticket; should you be allowed to berate the players to my essay fit in, a commensurate degree? No, you shouldn’t. I’m all for rowdy stadiums (Municipal Field being my favorite), but the league needs to take a stance that at the very least disallows player injury and/or berating that extends beyond the how to write a critique paper play social contract (no race, no kids…and moms are toeing the line, but in the case of get someone write learning and conditioning, LeBron James, maybe okay). So yes, the fans should be censored…but the line should be pretty far out there. On the field. The hair is indefensible. So is Gisele good for Tom? Not as it pertains to football…though I would argue that that’s okay (good for Tom), and it’s a microcosm of write a critique paper, a larger problem that would have arisen anyway.

Tom Brady has already won . A lot. And it becomes incrementally harder to win each time through a season. It’s either because you’re older and everyone’s gunning for you…or because you’re aware of the odds that have already fallen your way, in which case, any reasonable person would know that the odds are now due for something to go wrong. Buy Essay Online Sukuk! (This is why I could never have been a professional athlete. As soon as something went right, I’d be waiting for the other shoe to fall.) 15. Manning, Brady or None of the paper Above? Is Tom Brady one of the Essay service: Buy essays top five quarterbacks of how to write paper on a essay, all time?

Is Peyton Manning? I would argue that yes, ultimately, they’re both top-five quarterbacks in the history of the game. Both are statistically superior (with Manning likely to end up breaking every numerical record in the game), and Brady is buy essay toy story, one of the greatest winners of all time, doing so with offenses that were not among the most talented in the league. They’re both close now, and they’re both threatening to bolster their respective resumes for five-plus more years. Not only are they all-timers, there’s a chance they could end up No. How To A Critique Essay! 1 and 2. 14.

Should Colleges Suffer for Their Athletes#x27; Mistakes? Reggie Bush gets caught in a scandal and USC is buy essay online cheap sukuk bonds, retroactively punished, essentially taking away bowl opportunities from a group in no way associated with the incidents in question. Should this be the a critique on a play precedent? Absolutely not, though I haven’t quite figured out a better solution. Online Sukuk Bonds! The school should be penalized, as should the transgressing player…but there has to how to write a critique paper play essay, be a better way to handle these things than to effectively cancel the season for Writing service:, the kids there when the verdict finally comes in. 13. Paper On A Play Essay! Should College Athletes Be Paid?

The NCAA is Essay Buy essays, a billion-dollar enterprise that suspends its player for trading game-worn jerseys for how to write play essay, tattoos…or food. Nope. College athletes do get a tremendous value for their time in effort by way of the get someone my paper learning free education they receive…but I’d imagine a tremendous amount of the “violative” activity cited in write, the previous slide could be avoided with something akin to a small stipend for get someone write learning and conditioning, food, drinks or spending money. We’re not talking NBA money here…just perhaps something akin to what a student might make while working in the school bookstore, where employees are paid even if they’re on scholarship. It hit the WNBA years ago, and has been mulled over by both the NHL and the NBA (with the how to a critique paper play essay latter, the ads were to my paper and conditioning, be placed on their practice jerseys). Should the write paper play essay major sports take one for (or on) the teams? Absolutely not. The uniform is perhaps the most influential symbol of characterizing theatre, team, and I don’t know that I could take an Aaron Rodgers as seriously if he had a $5 footlong on his back. If only they had jerseys… Certainly it can, but boxing needs a charismatic prodigy, and he probably has to be a heavyweight.

You know how I know that? Because that’s what it would take for me to watch. I’m not a huge boxing guy (although Pacquiao has caught my attention). but as soon as the next Mike Tyson starts working his way through the ranks, I’ll be plunking down $50 to watch him. MMA has surpassed boxing in popularity, and how to write a critique on a play essay, it’s making a play to steal its niche entirely. I honestly think that this is buy research online cheap, a threat, and my reasoning is the same as it was a slide ago. Boxing has so few stars, and write a critique on a, MMA is building their roster with household names. Essay …! The names sell the a critique paper on a play fights, and the sales attract the names. Online 3 Review! Boxing needs to find a star, and they need to find him soon. Another good one, because every time I watch one of these fights I think someone is going to die. How To Write A Critique Essay! MMA is currently illegal in New York. Yes, it should be legal…but boy, maybe pad the gloves a bit more?

It’s only a matter of time before someone’s face is irreparably shattered. Jordan through eight years: 32.3 PPG, 6.3 RPG, 6.0 APG, one title. James though eight years: 27.7 PPG, 7.1 RPG, 7.0 APG, zero titles. LeBron will never touch Jordan’s career (for the same reasons he won’t touch Kobe’s), but he’ll have moments where he’s re-entered into the discussion. Like literally everyone has said all along, the talent is there for LeBron and as such we’ll continue to online toy story 3 review, see it…but I think LBJ has already fallen/steered himself too far off the GOAT path to ever truly climb his way to the top of the list. 7. Should Steroids Be Legalized and Monetized?

They’re in our sports already, and this tactic has proven effective in at the very least consolidating use of drugs in mainstream culture. Could it work in athletics? Purely out of principal, I don’t think you can go down this road. How To A Critique On A! And sooner or later, we’ll have to. It’s not totally inconceivable that scientists will be able to my essay, genetically manipulate athleticism within the a critique on a play essay next 50 years. Cheap My Essay Fit In! Actually, it’s probable. What are the implications of that?

That the next LeBron James-esque athlete may come from a well-off suburban family who’s historically more into a critique on a play essay, pharmaceuticals than basketball. 6. Should Steroid Users Be in the Hall of need help do my characterizing theatre, Fame? It seems right now, the consensus is “no.” But in 20 years, will we continue to look down on Bonds, on write a critique on a play essay Clemens, on 50 percent of the league? I think the wounds of the steroid era need more time to buy research cheap downstream processing, heal, but ultimately, I think the SE will come to be known as just what it says itself to be—an era in essay, baseball. Writing Buy Essays …! It’s an impossibly fine distinction to write paper on a play, make—that one guy cheated and another did not—and I don’t think it’s within the capacity of the Hall of Fame to make it. The world knows that Barry Bonds used steroids, it should be on his placard and his placard should be in the Hall of Fame. Question of the buy research papers online cheap summer.

With the NFL and the NBA both either in or on write essay the verge of extended lockouts…to which side would you prefer the buy research cheap downstream processing balance of power swings? Should players be able to force their team's hands (a la LeBron in how to paper, Cleveland, Carmelo in Denver and Dwight in Orlando), or should the owners have that power (non-guaranteed contracts, franchise tags, and ultimately—I think—revenue sharing)? I tend to buy research online cheap downstream, side with the owners (at least as it pertains to a critique, power over get someone write learning, the league)…although that may not have been the case had I lived in either Miami or New York. 4. Which Is the Best Sports League? Two of the four major sports are thriving (NBA in terms of popularity, NFL across the board), and paper on a play, the NHL is coming on strong. Baseball, meanwhile, at least maintains its distinction as our nation’s pastime. Which league is best?

This is a loaded question, as I think most would tend to side with their favorite sport and/or commissioner as the top league in North America. Basketball is my favorite sport and cheap write fit in, I think David Stern is the best commissioner in sports…but it would be pretty tough to how to paper, mount a reasonable argument against the NFL as the No. 1 league (current struggles aside). It’s a billion-dollar business growing exponentially each year, it ranks first in popularity among North American leagues and buy essay online, literally the how to write a critique paper play essay only threat to papers online, slow its growth is the current lockout, which will hopefully be over in a few weeks. Ah, the a critique on a essay question of the summer part deux. And we have a perfectly illustrative example for each. Football: hard cap. Basketball: soft cap. Baseball: no cap. Not one for either Yankee-like store-bought dynasties (I’m from Cleveland) or annual turnover (again, Cleveland), I favor the NBA system with one small exception: I like the franchise tag (last time, I’m from Cleveland).

2. Should Pete Rose Be in write and conditioning, the Hall of Fame? I admit to not knowing my baseball history quite well enough to convince the unconvinced…but come on. The Hall of play, Fame isn’t meant to make personal judgments. As I did with the Writing … steroid-ers, I favor Rose’s inclusion. Charles Barkley says no, but…is he right? I tend to think he is not. Athletes are role models…and they don’t really have a choice. Nor do actors, politicians or anyone else who appears on TV for their own personal gain or that of their employers.

If you make your living via a profession that requires television, internet or any such medium…it’s more than an opportunity to be a model for others; it’s a responsibility—part of the a critique play essay social contract.

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Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in get someone write my paper learning and conditioning, the body of how to write a critique on a a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. Write Paper Essay! They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published).

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A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service.

Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).

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Tuesday 14 April 1970. At 1133 AEST on 14 April Lovell and Haise had entered Aquarius earlier than the get someone learning and conditioning, flight plan had scheduled, anxious to check the pressure in the helium tank, which checked out okay. White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz on shift shortly before the a critique paper on a play, television broadcast. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1227 AEST, the astronauts put on Writing service: Buy essays … a television show, exhibiting some of their gear such as their space helmets, sleeping hammocks and special bags for drinking water inside their spacesuits. Lovell in the CM played music from 2001:A space Odyssey and Aquarius from a small tape recorder. Sadly, the astronauts did not know that their program was ending at the NASA centres, as the commercial networks had lost interest in broadcasting boring trips to the Moon.

Marilyn Lovell and Mary Haise had to paper on a, go to the Mission Control Center to see their husbands on television. Fred Haise takes the online, few viewers of the broadcast on how to on a play a tour of the online cheap toy story 3 review, Lunar Module, Aquarius . White Team Flight Director Gene Kranz (closest to the camera) watches in Mission Control, just 17 minutes and 42 seconds before the explosion. GET: on screen at top left, 55:37:11; GET of explosion: 55:54:53. NASA image. Astronauts Vance Brand and Jack Lousma (Capcom) enjoy the TV show. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. At 1259 the astronauts finished their on-board production with: “This is the crew of Apollo 13 wishing everybody a nice evening, and we’re just about ready to close our inspection of Aquarius and get back for a pleasant evening in Odyssey . Goodnight.” Lovell: “On the tapes I sound mellow and benign, or some might say fat, dumb, and paper on a play essay, happy. A pleasant evening indeed!

Nine minutes later the roof fell in. ” As the astronauts were copying down a message from Houston, on a control panel just above them a yellow caution light glowed to indicate a low pressure in buy essay online cheap toy story hydrogen tank #1 in the Service Module. Back at Houston the how to write a critique paper on a, same warning glared at EECOM Sy Liebergot from the sloping panel of his console. As he had been working on the contents of the tanks he wasn’t too concerned to see the essay theatre, light, as it could be a normal short-term situation. How To A Critique On A Play Essay. In the weightlessness of space the cryogenically stored gases could stratify into layers of different densities and give a false quantity reading, but to buy research papers online processing, make sure, Liebergot told Capcom Jack Lousma to ask the astronauts to stir both the hydrogen tanks, using paddles operated by a critique paper on a play electric motors. Normally this stirring was performed each day after the sleep period, but Liebergot wanted an extra stir before they went to sleep as he had been having trouble reading the help do my characterizing theatre, quantity in the oxygen tank #2, so he suggested they stir the oxygen tanks too. Lousma: “Thirteen, we’ve got one more item for you when you get the chance. Write A Critique Play. We’d like you to stir up your cryo tanks. ” Swigert answered “Okay, stand by” and at 1306:18 AEST flicked the buy research downstream processing, switches labelled H 2 and a critique, O 2 FANS on cheap write to stir the contents of the hydrogen and oxygen tanks. Nobody knew that inside Oxygen Tank #2 wires to the fan had lost their insulation from an incident during a test two weeks before. A committee led by Edgar Cortright, Director of the Langley Research Center in Virginia, was formed to investigate the incident.

It found the following events led to this moment of the Apollo 13 disaster. None of this can ever be verified, of course, because the Service Module burned up in the atmosphere on reentry. The flawed #2 oxygen tank had originally been made for Apollo 10, but had been returned to the manufacturers to improve the electromagnetic interference properties of the vac-ion pumps. When removing it from the Apollo 10 Service Module the frame holding the how to a critique paper play, tanks was dropped about online 5 centimetres. Although there is a possibility the jar could have loosened the couplings of the fill tubes, as far as the spacecraft systems engineers are concerned, this incident did not begin the series of events leading to the explosion in write paper on a essay space. In the oxygen tank there were a set of tube assemblies in the neck of the tank to get someone write my paper learning, fill and how to a critique, empty the tank on the ground, and a different set for need help characterizing use in how to write a critique paper play space to pipe the oxygen to either a fuel cell, or to buy essay online sukuk, the cabin atmosphere. According to the engineers the real culprit was a set of couplings in these tube assemblies in the top of the oxygen tank which leaked during a Count Down Demonstration Test (CDDT) conducted on March 16, a test run to a critique paper on a play, check out the launch procedures before every mission. Online Toy Story. The filling system was working normally, but technicians found they were unable to pump the super-critical cold oxygen fluid out of write essay tank #2 after the test.

Due to the leaking couplings, gas pumped in to remove the liquid oxygen was bypassing the tank contents and coming back out again, leaving up to 92% of the liquid contents behind. Looking for a solution, the engineering team thought the quickest way to empty the liquid oxygen would be to boil it off using the heaters in the tank. After discussions between the engineers at Kennedy Space Center, the Manned Spacecraft Center, North American Rockwell (the contractor) and Beech (the manufacturer) it was decided to go ahead. They also advised Mattingly and Lovell, assuring them it would be okay as these tubes were not used to supply the oxygen during the online bonds, flight. How To A Critique On A. Lovell queried the implications of get someone my paper learning and conditioning putting a new tank in. The flight would probably be delayed by up to a month was the answer, so Lovell told them to how to a critique paper on a, go ahead with the old tank: “If you’re all comfortable with this, then I am too.” The original Apollo spacecraft worked on 28 volts of electricity, but after 1965 the Apollo spacecraft’s electrical systems had been modified to handle 65 volts from the external ground test equipment.

Unfortunately Beech, the manufacturer of the tank, did not advise the manufacturer of the thermostat of the change, so the bi-metal thermostat switches installed in these tanks were still the 28 volt models, so when the heaters were switched on to boil the oxygen off after the CDDT test, the higher voltage caused arcing in the bi-metal thermostat and welded the contacts together. With the thermostat contacts permanently on, the heating elements remained on do my for 8 hours, instead of being turned off when the temperature reached 27C. This allowed the temperature inside the tank to climb to an estimated 538C. As the temperature gauge on the ground test panel only went to write a critique on a, 29.5C, no one was aware of write and conditioning this excessive heat, which burned the Teflon insulation off the wires in the motors driving the how to write paper play, two fans inside the tank. The fate of Apollo 13 and its crew was now riding on the two bare wires sealed in Oxygen Tank #2. Perhaps the first clue of a problem in the Service module was at 0318 AEST 14 April when oxygen tank #2 quantity indicated off scale high, eight hours before Lovell and Haise entered the LM to conduct some system checks, but nobody took notice of it. But now, on board Odyssey , 322,000 kilometres from Earth, the relaxed complacency of the crew and ground teams around the world was to be suddenly interrupted when Swigert switched the fans on in the online cheap, oxygen tanks.

When Swigert switched the fans on in O 2 Tank #2 at 55:53:18 GET, (1306:18 AEST on 14 April), some of the liquid oxygen in tank had been used, exposing the bare wiring. A Critique Play Essay. As a result a spark arced between the wires a spark in pure oxygen sealed under a pressure of 6,205 kPa in Writing the super tough spherical nickel alloy steel tank. It took less than 20 seconds for the resulting pressure to blow the a critique on a play essay, tank apart . shock the feed valves to two of the three fuel cells causing their failure within seconds. wreck the adjacent equipment in Bay 4 of the Service Module . and blow the external side panel out. Write. which clipped the main antenna as it hurtled out into space. Langley Research Center estimated the explosion was equivalent to 3.2 kilograms of TNT, which would demolish an average sized suburban house. There was nothing to indicate what had happened; no sound in the vacuum of write paper on a essay space; no sensors to detect explosions. As the Service Module was not directly visible from the Command Module windows, the astronauts could not see what had happened behind their backs. Just a shudder from the spacecraft.

At Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek Tracking Stations the prime receiver’s usually steady white “Signal in Lock” light suddenly blinked out and the alarms began their two-tone singing. The servo operator immediately switched to Program Track (antenna under computer control) and the receiver operators began trying to reacquire the signal but were only able to buy research papers online processing, find a weak signal coming from the spacecraft. Alan Foster on the Honeysuckle Creek receivers remembers: “The signal level dropped right down to about minus 140 db, I can remember struggling with it it was pretty grim but we managed to keep in how to a critique on a play essay lock. They also went on to emergency voice and became hard to sukuk, hear.” “Fred was still in paper play essay the Lunar Module. Jack was back in the Command Module in the left hand seat. And I was half way in between in the lower equipment bay wrestling with TV wires and a camera, watching Fred coming down.” Haise was crawling through the tunnel from the Lunar Module when he saw the wall of the tunnel flex, and felt the help do my characterizing theatre, jar from the explosion.

He jumped when the master alarm suddenly howled in his headset, mixed with Swigert’s voice from the Command Module yelling about a panel alarm. “Now, before that, Fred being in the Lunar Module, had actuated a valve which normally gives us the same sound. since he didn’t tell us about it, we all rather jumped. But it was his joke and we all thought it was sort of fun until something happened.” “It wasn’t me!” Haise threw back at Lovell’s inquiring expression as he instinctively dived for how to write play his couch in the Command Module. Processing. Swigert tried to slam the hatch shut behind him, thinking the jolt might have come from the how to paper on a play essay, Lunar Module being hit by something. The astronauts knew a high speed object not much bigger than a grain of sand could rip open the flimsy skin of the get someone write learning and conditioning, Lunar Module and let their life supporting atmosphere vent out in moments. Though Swigert wrestled with the hatch, it wouldn’t lock shut as it was misaligned. As they still had their atmosphere and were still alive, they pushed the hatch aside. All three astronauts’ pulse rates shot up to over 130. “It is interesting to a critique on a, note that days later, just before we jettisoned the Essay, Lunar Module, when the hatch had to be closed and locked, Jack did it – easy as pie.

That’s the kind of flight it was.” “It shook the how to a critique paper on a play, spacecraft and scared the hell out of me. Bonds. I proceeded to look at Jim and about the same time – I guess about two seconds had elapsed – when I had a master alarm and a main bus B undervolt light. I told Houston we had a problem and a critique paper on a, proceeded to go over to the right hand side of the spacecraft to look at the voltage…” He saw the B bus voltage supplying half the power to drive the spacecraft, drop right out. Haise checked fuel cell #3 supplying its electricity, and found it dead, so connected the alternative A power Bus to line, but it seemed to be on buy essay toy story 3 review its way out too. A quick check of fuel cell #1 showed it was as dead as #3. With only fuel cell #2 left to drive the how to write a critique paper on a play, A Bus, the astronauts realised from the buy research downstream processing, mission rules that landing on the moon was now impossible. At 1308 AEST Swigert called Houston with the now famous remark, “Okay, Houston, we’ve had a problem here.” Capcom Jack Lousma, “This is how to write paper play essay, Houston – say again, please.” “Houston – we’ve had a problem. We’ve had a Main B Bus undervolt,” Lovell explained. “Roger.

Main B undervolt. … Okay, stand by, Thirteen, we’re looking at it.” Capcom Lousma answered for the Mission Control team. In the need help characterizing, Apollo 13 spacecraft, launched at 1313 hours (spacecraft time), it was 9:08 pm on April 13 . At Honeysuckle Creek it was 1308 hours (1:08 pm) on April 14. At Houston it was just after 2100 local on a pleasant clear evening. With three friends, Andy Saulietis had rigged up a telescope connected to a black and white television set on a roof of the Manned Spacecraft Center. They were studying a slowly fading pinpoint of light approaching the Moon – the Saturn IVB rocket following Odyssey , blinking as it tumbled along. How To A Critique Paper On A Play Essay. While they watched, a bright spot appeared in the middle of the screen and over the next ten minutes grew into quite a bright ball. No one connected the flare with Apollo 13 they vaguely thought it was a defect in their television monitor. Cheap Fit In. They left the rooftop quite oblivious to what they had witnessed – the oxygen tank on Apollo 13 exploding, and in ten minutes spreading into a gaseous sphere over 48 kilometres wide, glowing in the sunlight. Inside the Mission Control Center none of the how to write a critique paper on a essay, Flight Controllers sitting at their consoles were aware of learning what had happened either, until some of how to paper play them began seeing abnormal indications coming down their telemetry channels – strange readings from temperatures, pressures, voltages, and buy essay online cheap, the status of various pieces of equipment. Write Paper On A. They were overwhelmed by reports of cheap write loss of the High Gain Antenna, spacecraft computer restarts, random thruster firings, and write on a, multiple system failures. It took them over fifteen minutes to figure out that there had been some sort of explosion, but they were still hopeful the mission was going to proceed to a normal lunar landing.

EECOM Sy Liebergot, the Flight Controller in charge of the Command and Service Module’s electrical and environmental systems, was now squarely in the hot seat: “Our data suddenly went ratty, some of it went static. Papers Cheap Downstream. I heard the announcements from the how to write a critique essay, spacecraft and was already scanning my readouts. Nothing made sense. I called Kranz, ‘We may have an instrumentation problem, Flight. Let me go ahead and check,’ which was my way of putting Kranz off, and he knew that.” “Rog.” Kranz replied. Hear Sy Liebergot’s EECOM loop starting just six seconds before the explosion. He asks about the cryo stir, and then we hear a burst of static as lock is lost on the High Gain Antenna. We hear the team beginning to troubleshoot the problem.

This recording is buy essay online cheap, part of longer audio on a disc included with Sy’s book, “Apollo EECOM: Journey of a Lifetime” available from write a critique paper on a essay CG Publishing/Apogee Books. This audio clip is also available on Sy’s website. Used with kind permission of, and with thanks to, Sy Liebergot. 1.1MB mp3 / 2 minutes 12 seconds. Clip starts at 055:54:49GET. Charlie Dumas (left) speaks with Gerry Griffin at the EECOM console. Sy Liebergot, smoking a pipe, is at right. From 16mm NASA footage several minutes before the explosion. Essay …. Screenshot by Colin Mackellar.

Liebergot never saw the pressure spike in the oxygen tank that caused the explosion: “You look away, you blink, and it’s gone. That’s exactly what happened. We were doing the cryo stir and how to a critique play, I was just looking to the right of the oxygen tanks at the hydrogen tanks where the changes usually showed up first. Everybody was looking at the hydrogen, which was about two inches over. Cheap Fit In. When I looked back the spike had already gone. My backroom guys, Dick Brown, electrical system expert, and George Bliss and Larry Sheaks, my environmental control systems experts, were trying to figure out how to write paper on a essay, what was going on as well. To begin with we figured we just had a fuel cell problem and concentrated on that.

Pretty soon we knew the tank was gone, so I asked for an estimate of how long we had on the remaining tank.” Liebergot had little to Essay, work on, only displays of how to essay nearly fifty parameters all showing out of limit readings on his console. This was so sudden, without any warning, that he felt overwhelmed. No amount of training or mission experience could prepare him for this crisis. Online Toy Story. Initially he knew that the two dead fuel cells drew their oxygen from the same source, and as the third cell was still working, at how to a critique paper on a play essay first he didn’t suspect the oxygen tanks. He was working on a Fuel Cell #3 leak, and trying to isolate it. Also, he was still trying to online 3 review, figure out why two fuel cells would fail. Then he saw that oxygen tank #2 was showing empty.

Its contents had all gone! Half the oxygen for on a play essay the cabin atmosphere and Essay Writing, the spacecraft power for the mission had gone in two minutes – just vanished. They hadn’t even reached the moon. All their training and simulations had always relied on backup systems to keep the mission going, nobody had been game enough to introduce a complete failure of all the power systems into the simulations. As one of the Flight Controllers said later, “This was so far down the line, if anyone had asked us to simulate it ahead of time we would all have said he was being unrealistic.” “I had all the feelings that went with not having the answers to the problem and not seeing any way out of it. It happened too quickly – it was a cascading failure which means the original failure got masked by the subsequent failures it created. We were never trained for a cascading series of problems leading to a catastrophe. That’s not training.

It was like saying the structure of the spacecraft was going to fail.” A minute or so after the explosion Alan Glines, the communications engineer (INCO), reported to Kranz that the signal from the write play essay, spacecraft had switched to write my paper, the smaller omni antennas, which was probably due to the side panel hitting the big antenna on its way past. The weaker signal combined with the erratic behaviour of the spacecraft caused the receiver operators at Goldstone and Honeysuckle Creek and the other stations difficulty in holding onto the weak, fluctuating signal for the rest of the mission. Then Lovell announced the voltage on the A Bus was beginning to write paper play essay, drop. An uneasy silence fell on the voice loops… “Okay, Houston, are you still reading Apollo 13?” Lovell couldn’t contain his anxiety any longer. “That’s affirmative,” replied Lousma, “We are reading you.

We’re trying to come up with some good ideas here for you.” He looked appealingly at Kranz: “What can I tell them?” Kranz did not have an answer. Nobody had an answer. Capcom Jack Lousma apeaks with the crew onboard Apollo 13 after the explosion. Astronaut John Young is write my paper and conditioning, seated next to how to write paper on a essay, him. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Lovell couldn’t understand why his ship was reeling drunkenly about the buy essay online bonds, heavens. Write A Critique Paper On A Essay. The thrusters were firing away trying to bring the toy story, spacecraft under control, but unknown to write a critique on a, either the astronauts or the flight controllers at the time the explosion had knocked some of the thrusters out. Lovell took over write learning and conditioning, manual control, but found no matter how he tried, he could do no better than the automatic pilot – the spacecraft seemed to have a mind of its own, always trying to veer away from the course. He decided to look out of the window in a critique paper on a play essay case he could see something outside. . As he swung himself onto write a critique paper essay the left seat and peered out, the sight that met his inquiring eyes formed a knot in his stomach – the sun was shining on get someone and conditioning a powerful stream of how to on a play gas spurting out of the side of the cheap write fit in, Service Module.

Sixteen minutes after the explosion, at 1322 AEST, Lovell remembers, “I happened to look out of the how to a critique paper, left hand window, and saw the final evidence pointing toward potential catastrophe. ‘We are venting something out into the . into space,’ I reported to Houston.” “Roger, we copy you are venting,” acknowledged Lousma. In Mission Control a report of need do my characterizing theatre gas venting into write a critique paper, space spread among the consoles like wildfire, and put a whole new dimension on the situation. Liebergot: “I ignored that, I couldn’t deal with that. I needed to Essay …, go and find what I could do about it. A Critique Play Essay. ” Fuel cell #2 was still producing electricity but when Lovell looked back at the oxygen pressures again Tank #2 was still reading zilch, but now Tank #1 was only half full, and dropping! They were going to lose all their oxygen – they weren’t going to have enough to buy essay toy story 3 review, bring the ship back home to on a play, Earth! This was it! Lovell knew they were in trouble. But how serious was it? Was it only oxygen gas squirting out into space? How long did they have?

He immediately sensed that their next moves would be crucial to their survival, and their lives would depend on Buy essays maintaining communication with Houston, and for how to paper on a essay that they needed power. There were only 15 minutes of battery power left in the Command Module, and buy essay online cheap, that was needed for how to a critique play essay reentry into the Earth’s atmosphere. The Earth was over 90 hours away . Lovell: “The knot in get someone write my paper and conditioning my stomach tightened, and all regrets about not landing on the moon vanished. Now it was strictly a case for survival. I had seen the film Marooned and I must admit that the parallel crossed my mind.” He looked across to Haise, the write paper on a essay, LM expert and buy research papers downstream processing, pilot, “We’re going to have to use Aquarius to get home.” Back in paper on a mission control, Liebergot also saw oxygen tank #1 contents disappearing before his eyes – the pressure dropping from 6,068 kPa down to 2,760 kPa in less than three minutes. Two thirds of the electrical power generation system was dead, and Buy essays …, there was only three hours of how to write a critique on a play essay life left. Buy Essay Online. Looking into write a critique paper on a, the immediate future, he felt momentarily sick in the stomach.

He grabbed the fit in, security handles on how to a critique on a his console to steady himself down. Papers Online Cheap Processing. Was he going to be the first flight controller to lose a spacecraft and its crew out in space? “In all my life I have never felt so alone, as I did then. I didn’t have the answers. It seemed we were on the point of losing everybody and everything.” What had to how to a critique, be done before the Command Module completely died? Would this crippled combination of a dead Command Service Module and a Lunar Module only designed to go down to the lunar surface and back with two people cope with demands and manoeuvres they were never designed for? There was little time left to make any plans. Everybody was facing problems that seemed to be leading to more problems.

except the Lunar Module systems people they were standing by with a fully operational spacecraft, powered down waiting to arrive at the moon. It wasn’t long before they realised the Lunar Module was going to be involved. During the need do my characterizing theatre, Trans Lunar Coast phase of the mission, the Lunar Module was powered down to conserve power, except for some critical systems kept warm by thermostatically controlled heaters powered by the Service Module batteries fed through the Command Module. Now they had lost the power to the relays that controlled the transfer of the power source to the Lunar Module batteries – so they could not turn the power on in the Lunar Module from its batteries in the descent stage. That was the first big problem to how to a critique paper on a essay, be overcome. Strangely enough a year earlier, on 25 April 1969, during an Apollo 10 simulation the simulation team had failed the Writing service: Buy essays …, fuel cells in a critique paper on a play almost the same spot, and the simulation ended with a dead crew. It was decided that this failure was a bit unrealistic and the incident was forgotten as the Apollo program forged ahead. Fortunately some of the more conscientious Lunar Module flight controllers had worried about do my characterizing theatre their simulation failure, and decided to look into the problem. Jim Hannigan, branch chief of the Lunar Module flight controllers, assigned Donald Puddy to pick a team to work on how to paper on a play essay the problem. Bill Legler, one of the key members of the team (who had been present during the Apollo 10 simulation) worked out some procedures that could reverse the power flow to go from the Lunar Module back into the Command Module and energise the write my paper, power transfer relays.

These emergency procedures had never been completed and incorporated into the official procedures, but with the play essay, Apollo 13 situation these preliminary procedures were recovered and dusted off. Writing …. They gave the how to write paper on a essay, Lunar Module controllers a head start. The engineer in charge of the electrical and environmental systems of the Lunar Module was Bill Peters, “I had just unplugged from the console and buy essay, only taken two steps away when Bob Heselmeyer called out ‘You’d better come back here, I think something’s going on.’ I figured out pretty quickly it looked like a major disaster, and one of the how to write paper on a essay, plans in cases like this was to close all the buy essay cheap toy story, telephone lines in and out of the write a critique paper, Control Center so just in case I called my wife real quick and write my paper and conditioning, told her not to a critique play essay, expect me home that night – turn on the TV to find out why – and cheap write my essay, hung up.” At the how to a critique paper on a play, Goldstone tracking station a team was quickly formed to analyse the telemetry information they had just recorded, particularly the last few moments before the explosion. Bill Wood , lead USB Engineer: “We were able to read all bits up to papers online cheap processing, signal loss by recording the data at a high speed of how to a critique on a play 60 inches per second and playing it back at 3½ inches per second. Then we rolled the chart paper onto the control room floor and counted the frames of data by eye to get someone write my paper learning and conditioning, find out what each parameter was reading up to the signal loss, and what things looked like right after the signal was reacquired. How To Paper On A Play. My recollection was that the engineers found a pressure spike in the oxygen tank that exploded.”

The telemetry showed the online cheap sukuk bonds, pressure shot up to 6,950 kPa for two seconds before dropping to zero in the next two seconds. Then Larry Sheaks called Liebergot to tell him that the how to paper on a essay, oxygen surge tank in the Command Module was losing pressure. The surge tank was usually used for reentry only, but was used as a buffer to keep the Essay service:, oxygen levels steady. The EECOM from Milt Windler’s Maroon shift, John Aaron, was quietly shaving at home when the phone shrilled. Write Paper On A Play. It was Arnold Aldrich, his office manager, at Mission Control. “Arnie said ‘Hey, John, these guys are working some kind of Writing service: problem and I know your specialty is instrumentation patterns and they think this is a telemetry problem, but I don’t know.’ So I said to how to write a critique essay, Arnie, ‘Go and read me some parameters off displays such and such, then go to Essay Buy essays, displays such and such and read those out to me. He did all that and I said ‘Arnie, that is not a telemetry failure there is no pattern there that fits. Tell those guys they’ve got a real problem and I’ll be right there. By the time I came in, I got in on the tail end of analysing what had happened there, and started convincing the paper play, guys that they ought to power down the Command Module and save the batteries, because we were using battery power to troubleshoot the problem, and get someone my paper learning and conditioning, I knew these were the same batteries that were going to bring us home. That was pretty traumatic because the Command and Service Module was never designed to be powered down in how to write a critique paper on a play essay space and get someone, we didn’t have any procedures to power it up from scratch.

Normally it was powered up over a period of days on the pad before you launched, using a lot of power.” Forty six minutes after the explosion George Bliss informed Liebergot that there was only 1 hour 54 minutes left in how to write on a essay O 2 Tank #1, when the last fuel cell would die. Then there would only be the Command Module’s reentry batteries left – and they were needed for buy essay online cheap sukuk reentry. The unthinkable had happened and there was no back up or redundant system to pull them out of this one. They were facing a major disaster in space. Liebergot announced on the intercom loop: “Flight, the how to paper on a essay, pressure in O 2 tank 1 has dropped all the way down to 297 (psi) (2048 kPa) and we’d better think about getting into the LM.” Flight dynamics chief Jerry Bostick was sitting in the Trench listening to the drama deepening on the console behind him, and get someone and conditioning, began to think of getting the how to on a play essay, spacecraft back as soon as possible. He and his team soon discarded the immediate turn-around (direct abort which would bring them home in cheap 34 hours) using the main SPS engine because the LM ‘lifeboat’ would have to be cast off, and doubt about the integrity of the how to on a play essay, Service Module – that is, how much damage had been done to the internal systems of the Essay service: Buy essays, Service Module? Was the engine damaged? Even if it wasn’t, there was no electricity to operate the how to write on a, engine controls such opening or closing valves.

The alternative was to carry on and sling around the Moon. This was going to take up to four days – could they keep the astronauts alive for such a long period? That was up to the LM systems controllers. The Trench waited for the Flight Directors to make up their minds. Ken Mattingly slid alongside Lousma and plugged his headset in. He wanted to help his mates if he could. Kranz said this was his toughest call on Apollo 13. “My team was pretty much split down the middle. Help Do My Essay Theatre. Many of write a critique essay my systems controllers wanted to buy essay online toy story 3 review, get home in the fastest fashion possible.” By now there were two teams gathered around the consoles discussing the emergency and the chatter was getting out of hand so Kranz stood up and paper on a, yelled around the need do my essay theatre, room, “Okay all flight controllers cut the how to write paper play essay, chatter.

I want every member of the buy essay cheap 3 review, White team to settle down and write paper play, get back on the voice loops – the rest of you shut up.” Still damp from get someone my paper and conditioning being called from a shower at home, Chris Kraft had arrived by now and joined the intercom conversation at how to play essay his Director’s console, just before thirty three year old Glynn Lunney was due to take over the next shift. Get Someone My Paper. Leader of the Maroon team, Milt Windler, also joined the group. Lunney had been discussing the return options with Bostick and an intense discussion developed between the how to essay, Flight Directors on the best course of action, ending with Kranz addressing Kraft, “Our only real option is to go around the Moon.” Chris Kraft, Astronaut Jim McDivitt, and Robert Gilruth in the back row of the MOCR. Behind them is the glass window of the VIP viwewing room. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Kraft agreed, “When do you want to do the burn?” The decision was made, and the Flight Dynamics controllers in the Trench breathed a sigh of relief and began to work out a burn procedure for a trajectory to sling around the Moon and write learning, return home.

So 53 minutes after the how to write paper play essay, explosion, an essay emergency plan began to evolve. Astronauts Gene Cernan (left), Deke Slayton (coat) and Ed Mitchell look on as Jack Lousma sits as his Capcom console. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. “I was already in a back room of the Control Center when we got the report that there was a problem. We were due on shift at about 10:00 pm (USCST) that night. The spacecraft crew were supposed to go to sleep and we were supposed to a critique paper on a essay, sit there and watch a sleep shift. I went in and plugged in with Gene; I knew the spacecraft crew had reported a bang and some venting, so there was a suspicion there was some kind of problem, but people still weren’t sure how serious the problem was. There were a set of confusing indicators we had lost the oxygen in one tank so we lost the fuel cell that was plugged to it, and that fuel cell was plugged to and conditioning, the B electrical Buss. The RCS thrusters were split between main Bus A and Main Bus B, so we had lost half the thrusters which gave us these attitude control problems.

We became involved in closing off the write a critique play essay, fuel cells, one at a time, to try to isolate a leak within the fuel cells, but once you shut them down, you can’t get them back, and I remember doing that as a last resort. We had a number of get someone my paper learning situations to play, deal with. We were on a non free-return trajectory. Up until Apollo 13 we had used trajectories that would loop around the Moon to return approximately into the entry corridor. Here we were not going to come back to any safe kind of Earth entry at all. We were also at my paper a point where it would have been very expensive in terms of how to write on a play essay propulsion to turn around and come back without looping around the Moon. That was considered for a while, but the buy research online downstream, only way we knew how to do that was to dump the descent stage of the play, Lunar Module and use all of the Service Propulsion fuel, but the two problems with that were we couldn’t power the Service Module up any more, we were only down to batteries, so we couldn’t sustain a power load to run the buy essay, Service Propulsion engine, and we didn’t want to dump the descent stage of the how to a critique play essay, Lunar Module because it was our lifeboat where most of the batteries, water and so on help do my essay characterizing theatre were stored.

Parallel with all this going on with the guidance people was what are we going to do to power the Lunar Module up. We knew we had to play, get it powered up enough to take care of the online sukuk bonds, manoeuvre later, but we also began to realise that the way the telescope worked for aligning the platform in the Lunar Module that it probably wouldn’t work by how to a critique play itself while it was attached to the Command Module out in free space. We realised we had to get an alignment from the Command Module guidance reference system, the inertial platform, and transfer it over to buy essay online cheap toy story 3 review, the Lunar Module which was a lot of number plugging by the crew members, followed and paper on a play essay, checked by Writing service: the people on the ground. This of course happened some time after we got the Lunar Module powered up. How To A Critique On A Essay. We got the Essay, Lunar Module powered up but as we went through it we were trying to figure out what we didn’t have to bring up because we knew we were going to be power limited and water coolant limited to get home. The Lunar Module was designed for two men for two days and we knew we were at least four or five days from home with three people. Essay. We knew we couldn’t stay powered up at these levels so we had to figure out a way to Essay Buy essays …, cut the power down. We also knew we had limited amounts of consumables on board. We got the Lunar Module configured so it could do a passive thermal control.

Instead of a rolling manoeuvre, which we normally used, we rotated the vehicle ninety degrees every hour so we could get equal sun (heating) and cooling on the vehicle. As we could watch this on the ground the crew didn’t have to worry about write paper on a play it. Once we got in that position we said we’re on this non-free return, why don’t we trim that out and get the vehicle on a free return so if anything happens later we are least heading for the reentry corridor. So we did this 40 foot per second manoeuvre that put us on a free return trajectory. After that we began to buy essay online cheap sukuk bonds, try to take power off everything that we didn’t need and play essay, we began to lay out in detail the get someone, options for how big or small a manoeuvre we would do at seventy nine and a half hours into the mission, after we got around the how to a critique on a play, Moon.

We settled on buy essay cheap bonds a manoeuvre that wasn’t quite maximum but would get us back by about 142 hours. We had also figured out write play, how to husband the online downstream, consumables. By the end of my shift about ten hours later we had put the vehicle back on an Earth return trajectory, the inertial guidance platform had been transferred to the Lunar Module, and we kept the Lunar Module reasonably powered up for the burn planned for two hours after we had turned the corner at the Moon. We had a plan for what that manoeuvre would be, and we had a consumable profile that really left us with reasonable margins at the end.” Glynn Lunney (left) and how to write a critique paper play essay, Milt Windler, take stock of the situation. Behind them, in the background, is Robert Gilruth. Deke Slayton is in the foreground. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by need do my Colin Mackellar. Here’s a view of the MOCR during Glynn Lunney’s shift, after the accident. Panorama assembled from 16mm NASA footage by CM.

Gene Kranz and his White Team continued their shift for an extra hour before handing over to Glynn Lunney and the Black Team, and went to the back of the write a critique, building to study data from the spacecraft. Kranz decided to step out of the Houston shift sequence and head a Tiger Team to concentrate on the engineering and procedures to get the crippled spacecraft and its crew back home. “The key thing here was I didn’t form the Tiger Team the Tiger Team to online bonds, a great extent always existed. During the Apollo Program we flew with four mission control teams, and one team was always designated as the Lead Team and in case of any mission difficulties it was that team’s responsibility to establish the game plan, the recovery plan, do the trouble shooting and that just happened to fall into my team. We had many problems here we had a variety of survival problems, we had electrical management, water management, and we had to write paper on a, figure out buy research papers online downstream processing, how to navigate because the stars were occluded by how to write play the debris cloud surrounding the spacecraft. Basically we had to turn a two day spacecraft into a four and a half day spacecraft with an extra crewmember to Essay Writing service: …, get the crew back home. We were literally working outside the design and test boundaries of the spacecraft so we had to how to paper essay, invent everything as we went along. There were many lead people, but the three people I would name were Arnie Aldrich who handled the checklist, John Aaron with the buy essay cheap, power management, and Bill Peters who looked at the Lunar Module and tried to figure out how it could be most effective as a lifeboat.” There were no official procedures to refer to even the emergency procedures didn’t cover losing all three Command Module fuel cell power sources and using the Lunar Module in paper play essay lieu of the Command Module.

At 1456 AEST on 14 April Lovell and buy essay bonds, Haise had already decided to climb into the Lunar Module, “Without much discussion from the ground, both Jim and I decided to head for the LM. At this point we only had one choice and took it,” Haise explained. Swigert was left to wind down the how to play, Command Module. The last oxygen tank was nearly empty. Capcom Jack Lousma told the astronauts, “Thirteen, Houston. We’d like you to start making your way over to the LM now” Swigert replied: “Fred and Jim are in the LM.” Lovell had joined Haise in the LM, who was already throwing switches to get someone learning and conditioning, bring the power up when Swigert yelled down the write play essay, tunnel, “Houston wants the LM powered up.” Haise advised Houston, “. and Essay Writing …, Jack, I got LM power on.” GUIDO Will Fenner (green shirt) at how to write the Guidance console as the navigation platform is get someone my paper learning and conditioning, transferred from Odyssey to Aquarius . From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Swigert said he had never seen the LM activated so fast, but it still wasn’t fast enough.

He had to turn the reentry battery in the Command Module on to keep the navigation guidance system going until the how to write paper play, crucial settings were transferred to the Lunar Module system. Just as Lovell set up a good alignment at 1513 AEST, the last Fuel Cell #2, died. Lovell: “Getting that transfer was the first big turning point.” The concern is evident on the face of astronaut John Young as he stands beside Capcom Jack Lousma. Behind him is astronaut Tom Stafford. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Houston told Swigert to close the Command Module down. The power had to be turned off in a carefully planned sequence so it could be brought back up ready for cheap sukuk bonds reentry. At 1553 he turned off the last switch, looked around the lifeless cabin no cosy lights, no friendly voices from the radio, no gurgling from pipes or whirring of fans their cheerful home of a moment ago was just dark and dead 333,125 empty kilometres from Earth, and racing away from it at 3,380 kilometres per hour!

He floated into the Lunar Module, and said to Lovell and Haise, “It’s up to write play, you now.” He suddenly felt lost. Write Fit In. He was trained for write paper on a play essay the Command and Service Module, a position normally busy right through the mission. Now he could only watch the cheap write my essay fit in, other two expertly bringing the Lunar Module to write a critique paper on a play, life. The last few hours had been fast and furious, crammed with momentous life threatening events; now it was just waiting. for what? Haise said that he lost all track of time during those hectic five hours, full of rapid-fire events. Get Someone Write My Paper And Conditioning. It was more like a dream than reality because of the jolt from the security of comfort and how to a critique on a, order to the onslaught of unexpected events and fleeting images and feeling very vulnerable to the hostile environment of empty space. Dead tired, he was the first to write my paper and conditioning, drag himself into the Command Module to how to a critique play, sleep soundly for the next five hours. RIGHT ACROSS THE CONTINENT, FROM PERTH TO SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA PITCHES IN TO HELP APOLLO 13.

“At the buy essay online cheap, time of the explosion I was operating the ranging system, which measured the distance and speed of the spacecraft, when I heard Swigert send his problem call, and then listened as the flight controllers sent a barrage of instructions up to the spacecraft, punctuated by terse responses from the astronauts. Once we had acquired on the smaller omni antenna, my equipment was managing to keep locked on the spacecraft signal, but my finger was hovering beside the ‘acquire’ button in case of essay drop-outs. At that stage we did not know it was a life-threatening situation, we thought it was a communications problem with the spacecraft. The first indication of the my paper, seriousness of the crisis to us at Honeysuckle Creek was when Mission Control in Houston called the Operations Supervisor at a critique play Honeysuckle Creek and asked, ‘How long would it take to get Parkes up?’ Parkes was the CSIRO’s radio telescope used during the Apollo 11 mission. It was not called up for help do my essay characterizing the Apollo 13 mission because the astronauts now used a big portable umbrella antenna for communications from the lunar surface. I knew the situation was really serious as you don’t just casually ask to use the how to on a play essay, 64 metre radio astronomy antenna at Parkes without making high level arrangements with plenty of write learning and conditioning warning.” In Mission Control the low signal levels from the write paper play, spacecraft were causing concern.

Chris Kraft, Director of need essay Flight Operations, “We wanted to how to write a critique paper on a essay, make sure that we got a good telemetry signal, and Parkes was one of the places where we knew we could get it.” “Parkes isn’t committed to this mission,” Mike Dinn informed them. “Oh, then Mr Kraft will be calling your Director on the phone shortly, “ Houston replied. Honeysuckle Creek Station Director Don Gray : Don Gray, Station Director, in his office at Honeysuckle Creek. Photo: Hamish Lindsay. “I was sitting in my office listening to this conversation on the net, and in moments the phone rang. Chris Kraft said to me ‘We have a serious problem on the spacecraft; it looks like we are going to have to power down and will need all the antennas we can get. Do what you can to get Parkes up as soon as possible.’ First of all I called Tom Reid, the Director at Tidbinbilla, to organise a crew to go to Parkes, then I rang John Bolton at Parkes to find he was already aware of the problem and was prepared to change the antenna over to support the NASA signals.”

At the Deep Space Station at Tidbinbilla the request took Station Director Tom Reid by surprise: “What are you talking about? It takes weeks of negotiations between the CSIRO and NASA Headquarters, agreements and money and budgets.’ Then I got a black phone call , ‘Hey look, we’ve got a problem on board the spacecraft this is a serious thing, think again about how soon you can do it – never mind about budgets and money.’ The contractor’s people responded magnificently, got themselves down to Parkes luckily the need help do my theatre, equipment was still there, it just wasn’t configured. NASA hastily flew out Bob Taylor, one of the Goddard engineers, to be there, as he knew the system.” Dr John Bolton, Director of Parkes. Photo from a 1967 ABC publication, via John Sarkissian. “I was listening to the conversation between Houston and James Lovell, and as had been my habit, had thoroughly digested the flight plan. I realised that the only solution was to occupy the LM and use its facilities. The very low power (signal from the spacecraft) and write a critique, the fact that the journey would be in Parkes coverage time meant we would certainly be called in. I rang Tom Reid, the Director of Tidbinbilla, with whom I had an excellent relationship, to ask for the NASA crew to be sent in; I rang Taffy (Dr. E.G.

Bowen) to service: …, let him know what assistance I would need from Sydney; and then Charlie Chenhall (RP Workshop Supervisor) to how to a critique on a, organise supplies and aircraft. Fortunately Radhakrishnan (Venkataraman Radhakrishnan, Director of the Raman Research Institute, Bangladore, India) was conducting a special experiment on the telescope and a number of cheap engineers were on hand. They dismantled and carried Rad’s equipment down the ladder of one of the feed legs, while Parkes staff used the lift to get the NASA gear to the focus. How To Write Play Essay. We accomplished in 10 hours what normally took close to get someone write my paper and conditioning, a week.” Bruce Window , Tidbinbilla USB Supervisor: “It was about 6 pm. I was working on shift at Tidbinbilla when we were cranked up straight away to get to Parkes in a hurry in a light aircraft, a Cessna 337. It was a hairy trip. At the how to paper on a, same time the CSIRO had been given the message and buy essay online, they had taken their feedcone off and had started to assemble our feedcone. We arrived in the dark, drove out to the site, by on a play which time the CSIRO had flashed up all their part of the equipment.

On that first day we had got the get someone write my paper learning, voice but we hadn’t got all the links through to Honeysuckle. I can remember holding the cable and shouting in frustration, I had the stuff in how to paper on a play essay my hand but I couldn’t do anything with it! Predictions were the problem (the information where to point the antenna), they were a big problem early on. We just had to rely on predictions from NASA. John Bolton and his boys had to work around them as much as they could. Essay Characterizing. We didn’t get any really good data from Parkes that first night. They were relying heavily on how to write paper on a play us because of the improved quality of signal they were able to up the online cheap, bit rate by one step with our signal from what they were getting from the a critique, 26 metre dishes (such as Honeysuckle) that was why they needed us at Parkes. We worked 16 hour days.” “I was relaxing at home when I had a phone call from the shift supervisor at the time to say there was a problem, so I immediately went in to find that Apollo 13 really was in trouble. Get Someone Write. Next there was a call from the Network Manager in the United States to say they wanted two things immediately they wanted to activate the lines to Parkes, and the second one, which was a bit more difficult, was to write a critique paper on a play, get some kind of broadband communication between the Carnarvon OTC Earth station and the Carnarvon Tracking Station.

They wanted everything they could get. I worked out I still had a few friends left in the PMG (Post Master General’s Department) in cheap sukuk Western Australia who could help us out. So, by 4 o’clock in the morning I dragged one of my friends out of bed, and he said, ‘Oh, I think I have got an how to a critique on a play OB (Outside Broadcast) link we could use, I’ll see what I can do give me a call back in an hour.’ When I called him back he said, ‘Yes, I’ve organised it, two OB vans will be leaving the depot in Perth for Carnarvon at 8 o’clock this morning, as soon as the write my paper learning and conditioning, guys get to work.’ There was no mention of money, or anything like that, it was a matter of let’s do it and sort things out write paper essay, afterwards. At the same time I got cracking with the PMG. Need Essay Characterizing Theatre. Because we already had circuits into Parkes, there was a probability most of it was still working. I called people out of bed and they found most of the link was there, and pretty soon after the Tidbinbilla guys arrived we had the links up.” Trevor Gray , PMG technician: “We worked non-stop through the night to get the links going. After Apollo 11 we had trouble with the connections exploding when we switched the on a play essay, equipment on cheap fit in because of the high voltage and moisture getting in, so we had left the equipment switched on, but then all the electronic valves had deteriorated, and we were frantically trying to find the sick valves and change them before we could get the links going.” Wilfred Laing , Senior Technical Officer at the Redfern Microwave Terminal in Sydney was interrupted by the phone ringing: “It was the City South Control to how to write a critique on a, say they needed Parkes up in a hurry.

I rang through to Parkes to find they were already setting their end up. Somebody must have had a premonition because only a few days before we had put up a temporary link from Parkes to Sydney via Orange just in case it may be required. We dropped everything we were doing with the state networks and concentrated on the Apollo circuits.” Meanwhile out in space the astronauts found that as soon as they brought the Lunar Module communications system on line it clashed with the buy essay online cheap sukuk, Saturn IVB rocket following them, as they were both transmitting on the same frequency. Because the Apollo 12 mission had left a seismometer on the moon, the Saturn IVB was organised to crash on the moon for seismic readings, and how to paper play, extra batteries had been added for communications to online sukuk, last until impact. How To On A Play Essay. Normally, this should occur well before the Lunar Module was fired up. So with both the Saturn IVB and Lunar Module transmitters on the same frequency it was the same as having two radio stations on the same spot on sukuk the dial of how to play essay your radio. Which one does it try to lock onto?

Bill Wood at the Goldstone Tracking Station, “The Flight Controllers at Houston wanted us to move the signal from the Lunar Module across to the other side of the Saturn IVB signal to allow for Essay Writing expected doppler changes. Tom Jonas, our receiver-exciter engineer, yelled at me, ‘that’s not going to work! We will end up locking both spacecraft to paper on a play, one up-link and wipe out the telemetry and voice contact with the crew.’ I jumped on the station intercom and strongly requested Bill Sheridan, the bonds, Station Operations Supervisor, to tell Houston what would happen, but they just told us to follow instructions. So at how to on a essay that time Houston lost telemetry with the Saturn IVB and voice contact with the online, spacecraft crew.

Luckily our big 64 metre Mars antenna was already switching over to the Apollo emergency and their narrower beam width managed to discriminate between the write on a play, two signals and the telemetry and voice links were restored. So the write, situation stabilised from write a critique on a essay our point of view until it was time for us to cheap write my essay, hand this ‘mess’ over to Honeysuckle Creek in Australia.” Honeysuckle Creek was tracking with its smaller 26 metre antenna. Deputy Director Mike Dinn : “This was where the how to, receiver operators earned their money. When they fired up the write my paper and conditioning, LM, we had both signals in the same bandwidth and we had ten receivers that could lock to how to write paper on a play essay, one or the other and did!

Before the mission I had foreseen the buy essay cheap 3 review, possibility of our having to cope with the Saturn IVB and the LM together. Write Essay. There was nothing written down in the procedures and I remember calling Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, our technical advisors, to buy research papers online cheap downstream processing, discuss what we might do, and how to a critique on a play essay, we agreed there would be no difficulty in “pulling” the frequencies apart by tuning the station transmitters appropriately. Do My Essay Characterizing Theatre. I was used to this procedure in how to a critique on a the Deep Space Network in the early years of lunar and planetary exploration. Anyway, I remember that we acquired the two spacecraft and successfully pulled the two links apart. Then Houston asked us to buy research cheap processing, tune the frequency of one transmitter and I immediately recognised this would bring all the frequencies back together again. I tried to write paper on a, talk Houston out of this, even asking Goddard to tell them, but was unsuccessful, and we had to carry out the request. The problems we knew would happen, occurred.”

John Mitchell , Honeysuckle USB Shift Supervisor: “Back when Apollo 1 had the fire, during the cheap, long suspension period that followed we used to paper play essay, hire a Cessna 210 and practice handovers and that sort of thing. When Mike Dinn was looking for emergency procedures I put up the theory that what happens if the Saturn IVB signal does keep going for some reason? So I proposed the theory of cheap getting the LM to switch off and we practiced that time and time again with the how to play essay, aircraft. I told Mike Dinn that this was the way to write my paper, go.” From his previous discussions with Goddard, Dinn agreed: “I advised Houston that the only way out of how to write on a essay this mess was to ask the astronauts in the LM to turn off its signal so we could lock on Writing … to the Saturn IVB, then turn the LM back on and pull it away from the Saturn signal.” “They came back in an hour and told us to go ahead, and Houston transmitted the instructions up to the astronauts ‘in the blind’ hoping the on a, astronauts could hear, as we couldn’t hear them at that moment. The downlink from the spacecraft suddenly disappeared, so we knew they got the message. When we could see the Saturn IV downlink go way out to the prescribed frequency, we put the my paper learning, second uplink on, acquired the LM, put the sidebands on, locked up and tuned away from the Saturn IVB. Then everything worked fine.” In the left foreground at the servo console is Brian Bell, behind him is Bernard Smith bending over the System Monitor chart recorder.

Along the receiver console behind are the how to write a critique play essay, receiver operators, Graham Fraser, Ross Barnes, and Jerry Bissicks. Photo: Hamish Lindsay, exact date unknown. In Houston, the online cheap sukuk, Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, came out and grimly told the media, “This is as serious a situation as we have ever had in a manned spaceflight.” People around the world, already blas about moon missions, suddenly became engrossed in this gripping drama from space as the world’s media wound themselves up for this journalists’ manna from the Apollo program. Everybody was wondering would they come back alive? Director of Flight Operations, Chris Kraft, speaks to how to write paper on a play essay, the media at a midnight press conference in the MSC Auditorium. Courtesy Spacecraft Films. With no power, the Command Module lapsed into a dark tomb, steadily getting colder and colder. Beads of cheap fit in moisture formed over all the surfaces, crusting the windows. Occasional flashes of sunlight through the windows pierced the darkness lit only by write paper on a play their torches.

Outside, a cloud of vented gases and debris gathered around the spacecraft. Sparkling in the brilliant sunlight, they stopped any chance of the astronauts taking sights on papers online cheap stars for their navigation. “The spacecraft was doing things I had never seen before. The LM was never designed to have a 27,000 kilogram dead Command and Service Module attached to it, so I literally had to learn to how to write paper on a essay, fly the Writing service:, vehicle all over again.” Apollo 13 was the how to on a play, second mission that had deviated from the ‘free-return’ trajectory, where the spacecraft would automatically sling around the Moon and return to Earth if anything had gone wrong. When the missions began to aim at the western landing sites the spacecraft took a different path and would not automatically return to Earth. Now they had to my essay fit in, get back on how to play to a free return trajectory, or they would miss the help essay characterizing, Earth by something like 70,000 kilometres. The only reliable engine available was the LM’s descent motor, but that was never designed to push the combined CSM and LM, and there were no procedures to use it in this way or simulations. Although pilots are reluctant to admit it, the computer can control burns much more accurately and reliably than manual control, so the astronauts waited anxiously while Houston figured out the rocket’s burn times. Fred Haise calls Capcom Jack Lousa, to ask about plans for the return flight.

Starting at 059:17:53GET. This recording illustrates another problem caused by locking the how to paper on a play essay, IU and fit in, LM transponders to how to paper on a play essay, the same frequency. Bill Wood: “The GDS Wing was uplinking to the IU and GDS prime was uplinking to the LM. That would have caused problems receiving both voice and command from the ground. While there was only one 30 kHz voice subcarrier from the GDS Prime, the presence of two uplink carriers would have caused the interference that the crew was hearing.” Clip starts at 059:59:05GET. The headline on Sydney’s The Sun newspaper, printed just hours after the write and conditioning, explosion, tells the story. Meanwhile Lovell and how to write a critique paper essay, Haise were wrestling with an uncontrollable spacecraft, trying to stabilise it and get away from the glittering debris enveloping them. They needed to see the stars to check they were pointing in the right direction for the burn.

Every ruse failed. Get Someone Learning. They could only hope the data transferred from the Command Module was still accurate enough. Write Paper On A Essay. “Roger, Aquarius, You are go for the burn,” Capcom Lousma finally announced. Haise commented, “This was yet untried. I knew, of course, that if we failed to blast into the free return trajectory we were doomed to swing around the Moon, miss the Earth, and go into eternal orbit around it.” First of all Lovell had to remember to unfold the Lunar Module’s legs so they wouldn’t get blasted by the descent rocket’s exhaust.

Then he carefully followed the burn procedures radioed up from Houston, hunched over online cheap sukuk bonds, the computer display with his hand on the throttle control. At 1842:43 AEST Tuesday 14 April the how to write a critique play, engine burned for 34.23 seconds, just over the scheduled 30 seconds. “Auto shutdown.” Lovell advised Houston and everyone hung anxiously onto the trajectory displays. Was the Lunar Module’s motor able to do the job? Was Apollo 13 coming home? Soon the tracking data showed that the burn was perfect. Apollo 13 was going to round the moon at buy research papers online cheap downstream processing about 209 kilometres instead of 97 kilometres above the surface and would return to a critique paper essay, Earth . into the Indian Ocean. “Any old ocean would do as long as it was on the Earth,” announced a relieved Lovell. A long way away from the main recovery forces waiting for them in the Pacific, but at least it was back on Earth. The nearest American ship was the papers cheap downstream processing, destroyer Bordelon , cruising off the how to write a critique paper, coast of Mauritius, but the help characterizing, American Department of how to paper Defense sent assurances they could get aircraft to the area. Due to the growing confidence in the Apollo program, this was the first time mission secondary recovery forces had not been sent to the South Atlantic, let alone the Indian Ocean. Lovell checked around the instrument panels, and announced the next major item on his mind: “Okay, Houston, burn’s complete.

Now we have to talk about powering down.” The next big problem were the consumables it wasn’t much good the buy essay online sukuk, spacecraft arriving back on write paper on a Earth with the astronauts dead from asphyxiation. The Lunar Module was only online designed for two people for 45 hours, now it was going to have to support three bodies jammed in it for 90 hours. A Critique Play. There just wasn’t enough water or power to last the voyage back to Earth. Lovell figured that the earliest they could get back would be around midnight on Friday; and online cheap sukuk, he couldn’t see how it could possibly keep them going that long.

In the Lunar Module Haise was looking at the situation. There was plenty of oxygen but the electrical power and cooling water worried him. The LM had no fuel cells, only batteries for two days of normal operation, and how to write a critique paper play, the water used for cooling the electronic systems would run out about 5 hours before reentry by his calculations. Earlier tests had shown that the Lunar Module could survive for about 7 hours without cooling before the guidance system would be the first to succumb to cheap my essay fit in, the heat. Haise waited for how to write on a essay Mission Control’s assessment. The Tiger Team at buy essay sukuk bonds Mission Control knuckled down to working out how to write a critique, how to cut all consumables down to a basic existence level.

“We gathered up in Essay Writing service: the back room with Kranz because there was nothing for the Command and write play essay, Service Module guys to do in real time on the consoles because the spacecraft was dead. Kranz started talking about the strategy, what we were going to do going around the Moon and when we get back close to Earth we will power the toy story, spacecraft up and do the reentry. and I said, ‘Kranz you can’t do that because you don’t have the power’ and he said, ‘Okay John Aaron, you’re in charge of power if anybody wants any power you go and write on a play essay, see John Aaron.’ So I said, ‘Tell you what guys, I’ve got some ideas, but let me put them down a piece of Essay Writing Buy essays … paper and come back in an hour and I’ll show you a way we might be able to do this.’ So they came back in how to a critique paper essay about an hour, and get someone learning and conditioning, I had sketched out a rough profile and I told them, ‘Okay guys, this is all the write paper on a essay, power we’ve got so we’ll have to cheap write fit in, do the a critique paper on a essay, guidance system and need help characterizing, all this stuff this way. ’ and everybody started saying ‘Oh my God, you can’t do that - we’ve got to have this, we’ve got to write play essay, have that’ and that started a whole sequence of the brokerage process between me allocating subsystems and switch turn-ons and online cheap toy story 3 review, circuit breakers and keeping track of the power profile. That went on until we got very close to reentry, and it started taking on write on a essay more and more refinement, until it finally got to the point that a crew started trying it in the simulators just to make sure these guys could actually do that. Buy Essays …. It was an endless iteration of brokerages across those days, and you have to remember all the write paper play essay, power analysis was done on buy essay cheap 3 review arithmetic and slide rules we never had any calculators.” Bill Peters, Lunar Module TELMU, or electrical and how to write paper on a play essay, environmental systems engineer, “We had developed some off-line computer programs that gave a time line power profile output. We were running a load of anything up to 30 amps with the computers up, and there was no way we could get back with that sort of cheap write my essay fit in load. I figured if we could get down to about 12 amps we would be okay. How To Write On A. We only knew this from our ground computations. Buy Essay Cheap Toy Story. Actually we had an error in our ground computation that under calculated so those batteries were consuming more than we had calculated.

The first time I felt we could make it home was when we went around the Moon and how to a critique play, did the real LM power down and the numbers came up on the screen. Before that there was a possibility they would not make it. Get Someone And Conditioning. Once we hit the play, 12 amps I was convinced we had it made. We had very little powered up, only Buy essays some communication equipment and the cabin fan to circulate the air. John Aaron came to me and how to write paper play essay, wanted me to charge up the reentry batteries in the Command Module. We had concocted a scheme where we ran two CSM to LM umbilical cables backwards they were designed for the CSM to send power to the LM to heaters to keep some components warm while travelling to cheap, the Moon. This powered the Command Module’s inverters to charge its batteries. I gave them all the fat that I could come up with, as much power as I felt we could afford.” On Earth emergency teams swung into action around the country, from California to New York, where there were 10 phone lines kept open between Mission Control and a room staffed with 70 Lunar Module experts at the manufacturer’s plant in Bethpage, Long Island.

On 14 April the US Senate adopted a resolution urging all communications media and businesses to pause at 2100, their local time, to “permit persons to join in how to play essay prayer for the safety of the astronauts.” On the same day President Nixon cancelled his appointments and buy essay online cheap toy story, drove out to the Goddard Space Flight Centre in Maryland, accompanied by Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins, at the time Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs, to find out the details of how the mission was progressing. Despite the Cold War, the Russians ordered four ships to paper play essay, the splashdown area, and Premier Aleksei Kosygin sent a message, “I want to buy essay online, inform you the Soviet Government has given orders to a critique on a, all citizens and members of the armed forces to use all necessary means to render assistance in the rescue of the American astronauts.” 6 min 47s / 1.4MB mp3. This is 12 hours after the explosion and the comms is now much better. Starting at 066:35GET.

Wednesday 15 April 1970. By 1520 on 15 April the crew in the crippled spacecraft had followed the ground instructions. Lovell, “We shut off all those exotic electronic devices that we would not normally be caught without out there the guidance systems, the computer, the auto pilot. We only had the radio for need essay communications and a little fan to circulate the atmosphere.” “For most of the how to write paper on a play, first two days after the explosion we split shifts . I was awake in the LM alone while Jim and Jack slept in need characterizing theatre the CSM and vice versa. So there was no crowding during that period. It finally became so cold that we all just stayed in the LM. In zero G, though crowded, it was just a soft nudge if you happened to bump into someone. Most of the time Jack floated in the back area of the LM crew cabin out of the way, so the write a critique on a play, area was really not that confining. . And it was good to have the three of us together in the same vehicle. The added ‘heat of the third body’ helped to write paper essay, raise the temperature in the LM.” The moonlight was flooding into the spacecraft’s interior and the astronauts were able to put their torches away.

They had cut their consumption of water down to 170 grams per day. As Houston told them to save the Lunar Module’s water for cooling, Lovell told Swigert to buy essay online, transfer all the drinking water from the Command Module to the Lunar Module, which he did using plastic juice bags, but he sloshed some of the water into his boots, and suffered the misery of cold wet feet for the rest of the trip. They ate cold hot dogs and wet pack foods, when they ate at all, the Command Module having the only water heating system. All the food and drinks were cold refrigerator cold! They didn’t get very thirsty and a critique play essay, became quite dehydrated. This crew set a record by losing 50% more weight than any other crew, Lovell losing 6 kilograms. As Apollo 13 approached the backside of the Moon the Sun set behind the rim. An eerie darkness enveloped the spacecraft.

The glinting, blinding debris surrounding them vanished and the surrounding velvet blackness was studded with an illimitable sea of bright stars stars in every direction. Buy Essay Online Toy Story 3 Review. The thick band of stars making up the Milky Way stretched across the how to a critique paper, void. The crew then became aware some of the online toy story, stars were blotted out by write a critique paper on a two sinister black clouds accompanying the spacecraft. Lovell, “I can’t for the life of me figure out what that dark stuff is.” Haise, “Yes – did you look at it, Jack?” Swigert, “Yes, okay. see it there like two black clouds.” They decided it was the debris from the cheap write fit in, explosion. Write Paper. They became subdued as they remembered the crisis-laden moments of the explosion until a voice from Earth broke the spell, “Go ahead Houston.” “Okay, Jim, we have a little over online sukuk, two minutes until loss of signal and everything’s looking good here.” Vance Brand’s matter-of-fact voice from the security of the Mission Control Center showed he was unaware of the mood in the spacecraft’s cabin. “Roger, I take it you don’t want us to activate any other systems or make any other preparations until we reacquire signal?” Lovell checked. “Okay, we’ll just sit tight, then.

See you on the other side.” Apollo 13 rounds the Moon. View from how to paper on a Aquarius, with the Command Module at right. NASA JSC scan via the ALSJ. AS13-62-8909.

APOLLO 13 SETS A RECORD, TAKING HUMANS TO THE GREATEST DISTANCE FROM EARTH. At 1021:35 AEST on Writing service: Wednesday 15 April (GET 77:08:35) Apollo 13 coasted behind the Moon and lost contact with the tracking stations on how to paper on a essay Earth for about 24 minutes 35 seconds. As they looped around the back of the Moon, at a maximum height of 253.7 kilometres above the lunar surface, the Moon was 400,171 kilometres away from the Earth, further than any other Apollo mission. According to the Guinness Book of buy essay cheap sukuk bonds Records at this point Lovell, Swigert, and play, Haise set a record as the buy essay 3 review, humans to travel the farthest away from Earth. The crew lost the how to write on a, crescent sunlit edge of the Moon behind them and need help essay characterizing, flew over a totally black lunar surface until about five minutes before Earthrise a glow appeared on the lunar horizon. Haise saw it first, then Lovell moved back to let Swigert see the view through the window. While Lovell hovered at the back of the cabin the two first timers were glued to the Command Module’s windows, gazing in awe at the grim and how to on a play, desolate landscape of chaotic craters and torturous rilles, taking photographs and buy research papers online cheap, exclaiming, “Wow, look at that!” “Hey, you guys come on we’ve got a burn to do. Write Paper On A. If we don’t get this right you won’t get your pictures developed!” Lovell had seen it all before on Apollo 8. “It’s all right for buy essay cheap 3 review you you’ve been here before – we haven’t.” They still couldn’t take their eyes from the how to write a critique on a essay, passing spectacle. Mare Moscoviense. Online Cheap 3 Review. View from a critique paper on a play Aquarius . AS13-62-8922. From the Apollo Image Atlas of the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

After reacquiring the tracking stations on Earth at 1046:10 AEST the crew began to get someone my paper learning, prepare for the Lunar Module’s descent rocket firing to bring them home faster. AOS. Starting at 077:35:39GET. While they were waiting for the burn, Houston called up, “By the way, Aquarius, we see the results of Apollo 12’s seismometer. Looks like your third stage just hit the moon, and it’s rocking it a little bit.” Lovell answered, “Well, at least something worked on this flight. Sure glad we didn’t have a LM impact too!” The Saturn IVB smashed into the lunar surface at 1109:40 AEST 15 April, 140 kilometres west north west of the Apollo 12 seismometer with a force equal to 11 tonnes of TNT. Dr. Gary Latham, principal investigator of the how to on a play essay, experiment, commented: “The Apollo 12 Lunar Module’s signal only lasted for about 55 minutes.

This signal (from the cheap fit in, Apollo 13 Saturn IVB) arrived about how to a critique 30 seconds after impact, the peak amplitude was a factor of and conditioning 20 to 30 times larger than the LM, and a critique paper essay, lasted for 4 hours, which was astounding to us.” Choosing the safest option of the three available, one that did not require the Service Module to be dropped off, but took the longest time, Houston told the crew they could shorten the trip by 10 hours with a PC+2 burn, or a burn 2 hours after Pericynthion, the closest point they would come to buy research papers processing, the Moon. It would also bring them down in the Pacific Ocean the original target where all the recovery forces were. Unfortunately at this point there was a tropical storm “Helen” threatening the area, and how to write a critique play, they were considering an fit in alternate landing spot. Due to the software in the LM not being able to accommodate the attached dead bulk of the CSM, Lovell had to fire the paper play, engine manually. At 1240:39 AEST on Wednesday afternoon Swigert sat on the ascent engine cover during the 4 minute 23 second Trans Earth Insertion (TEI), or PC+2 burn, which increased their speed by get someone write my paper 966 kilometres per hour: “Now we were really on our way home, I felt much better about our chances,” he said. As heard live via the Voice of America, Rhett Turner reporting.

79:28GET. Now it became a matter of waiting. A Critique Play. And how the time dragged! “It was very quiet . very quiet. And suddenly when there was nothing to do and buy essay online cheap, you’re in a tight spot that’s bad news, because you start thinking about the tight situation you’re in a critique play and you want something to do!” In the write fit in, computer room at Honeysuckle Creek it was anything but quiet. Write On A Essay. Geoff Seymour , Computer Supervising Engineer: “We had an intermittent hardware problem in toy story the telemetry computer. Prior to the launch we had experienced this problem and at write a critique paper on a play essay one stage they were anticipating delaying the launch until we could fix the problem, but the cheap write my essay, computer managed to a critique on a, stay up long enough for the launch to go ahead. Round about the time of the explosion the same computer began to fail again, which put the pressure on us because they needed the ability to send commands up to the spacecraft, and to receive the telemetry down, they needed both computers up. We began to troubleshoot this computer and managed to narrow it down to Essay service: …, three printed circuit boards on write a critique one chassis.

We replaced those, but it didn’t solve the problem. My Paper Learning. I stayed on site, sleeping in one of the bedrooms below until we fixed it. As the spacecraft rounded the moon and was coming back the NASA engineers decided to ship out a chassis from the computer in how to the training facility in Goddard and strapped it into a first class seat on an airliner. We believed we could fix it before the buy essay cheap sukuk, chassis arrived from the States. The only thing left for paper on a us to do was to take the chassis out of the computer and we removed several hundred printed circuit boards, we cleaned every socket in the chassis, we cleaned every pin on every printed circuit board we could remove – we put it all back in, and from that day onwards the Essay Writing, intermittent problem just went away.” Early on write a critique paper Wednesday morning out in space a new development threatened the astronauts. A light warned them that the carbon dioxide had built up to a dangerous level, and in the confines of the write learning and conditioning, Lunar Module they would have eventually gone to sleep and died, poisoned by their own breath. On Monday night Chief of the Crew Systems Division at Houston, Ed Smylie, had already figured out there would be a carbon dioxide problem and how to write paper on a, had worked out a crude, but effective solution in his head. He joined his assistant, Jim Correale, to work out a system to buy research online cheap, join the Command Module’s square lithium canisters, which clean the carbon dioxide from the air, to how to play essay, the Lunar Module’s round system using only the materials available on board such as tape, plastic, and cardboard. Astronaut Tony England verified the procedure by successfully putting one together by online downstream processing oral instructions only. Smylie carried his contraption into Mission Control and left it on the Capcom’s console.

The carbon dioxide reading for how to a critique on a essay a healthy atmosphere was normally about 2 or 3 millimetres of mercury but now it was reading 13, and 15 was the recognised limit before the first signs of poisoning became evident. When he was ready Capcom Joe Kerwin called up the spacecraft, and read the instructions as the crew began to assemble the canisters at around 0330 on 15 April. Fit In. Lovell: “Jack and paper essay, I put it together it wasn’t very handsome, but it worked.” Jack Swigert (right) and Jim Lovell (left) work on the carbon dioxide solution. Photo courtesy of the Apollo Image Gallery. AS13-62-9004. In the Australian Senate, Apollo 13 caused enough concern to service: Buy essays …, be raised as questions on April 15 and April 16. Senator Anderson, “It is interesting to be able to tell the Senate and paper, the people of Australia that a small army of dedicated Australians worked throughout the night to install microwave links enabling the 64 metre radio telescope of the Commonwealth Scientific and write and conditioning, Industrial Research Organisation at Parkes to assist the write a critique paper, return voyage of the Apollo 13 spacecraft. Parkes, within hours after a request by the National Aeronautics and buy research online cheap processing, Space Administration, established voice communication with the astronauts at about 8:30 pm last night. Teams from the Post Master General’s Department and write a critique play, the Australian Broadcasting Commission, assisted by buy essay online 3 review personnel from Amalgamated Wireless (Australasia) Ltd., installed temporary microwave circuits from Parkes to Coonambro and from Red Hill in how to play Canberra via Williamsdale to Honeysuckle Creek.

This task, which involved the erection of 6 aerials up to 60 feet high in the middle of the need theatre, night, was completed at 6 am this morning. The microwave links will enable Parkes to how to paper on a play, transmit telemetry data from the service: …, spacecraft. Parkes, and the Australian Capital Territory stations of how to a critique play Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla, which my Department operates for NASA, will start to play a crucial role after the spacecraft’s trans-Earth injection which was scheduled for 12:40 pm today. I would like to pay special tribute to the staff at Honeysuckle Creek and Tidbinbilla who, working at the lowest possible signal level, have been providing communications between the buy research papers processing, ground control and how to a critique, the astronauts. I am certain that I speak for all Australians in wishing the Apollo crew a safe return to Earth.” Thursday 16 April 1970. At 0626:53 AEST during the morning of 16 April, not long after they had entered the influence of the Earth’s gravity field, everyone at Mission Control slid to cheap, the edge of their seats and grappled with another heart stopping report from Haise: “I just heard a little thump, sounded like down in the descent stage, and I saw a new shower of snowflakes come up.” Another explosion!

This time from under their feet in how to write a critique paper on a the life supporting Lunar Module they were all depending on! More debris gathered around the two stricken spacecraft. It was battery #2 in the Lunar Module’s descent stage. Don Arabian, from the Mission Evaluation Room, figured out that hydrogen and oxygen gases had built up in the battery’s lid until the need do my essay characterizing, pressure blew it off. Bill Peters, the Lunar Module’s electrical engineer: “After it made its “pop and write a critique on a play, snowflakes” as people say, we looked at Writing Buy essays the data and it had a spike in the current data, that’s all we saw in real time, but that battery continued to run for a long time before it failed to contribute electricity and I turned it off.” After consulting with the manufacturers, the engineers decided that the remaining batteries were going to last comfortably until the end of the mission. Mission Control began working on correcting some errors derived from the TEI burn with another burn of 14 seconds of the Lunar Module’s descent motor at 1431:28 AEST on 16 April. Paper On A Essay. Lovell fired the write my paper learning and conditioning, engine, while Haise kept an eye on the spacecraft attitude and Swigert called the how to write play, times.

Houston was anxious not to disturb the spacecraft’s homeward trajectory, so told the crew not to dump any waste material overboard. This meant they had to find a way to store their urine on write board. They found three bags in the Command Module and six little ones in the Lunar Module, plus by using some tanks associated with their EVA suits they managed to keep ahead of the flow. “I’m glad we got home when we did,” said Lovell, “because we were just about out of ideas for stowage.” Friday 17 April 1970. As Apollo 13 raced home the Flight Dynamics team (FDO, RETRO, and GUIDO) began to how to write a critique paper on a play essay, frown as they spotted the tracking data was indicating the spacecraft was gently drifting away from the critical entry corridor. What was causing this insidious drift?

Every known source of papers cheap downstream processing venting gas was turned off, so it had to be something else. After the mission ended, it was concluded that the small thrust causing the drift came from a ‘non-propulsive’ water boiler vent in the Lunar Module’s cooling system, which under normal circumstances would not have been noticed in the short dash down to how to a critique on a play essay, the moon’s surface and back. When the error crept up to online sukuk bonds, 161 kilometres it was time to do something, or the astronauts in their spacecraft would bounce out how to write paper on a, of the cheap, atmosphere and go off into solar orbit: “. to become a permanent monument to the space program,” as Lovell wryly put it, but said he would rather burn up in the atmosphere than skip out into solar orbit. The flight controllers were reluctant to fire the Lunar Module’s descent engine again. Helium was normally used to force the fuel into how to write on a, the engine combustion chamber, and the Lunar Module engineers were watching the pressure slowly building up in the storage tank. At 12,411 kPa a safety membrane would blow out to relieve the pressure. Once that happened there was no guarantee the engine would work, so the correction burn had to happen before the helium blew. Late during Wednesday evening when Capcom Vance Brand called Apollo 13: “We don’t want to power up the spacecraft completely, so that means no computer or mission timer. We’ll simply go with a manual burn, with you controlling the engine with the Start and Stop switches.

For attitude, what we’re going to get someone write my paper and conditioning, want to write a critique paper on a, do is manually orient the spacecraft to place the cheap write fit in, Earth in the centre of your window. If you hold it there throughout the how to write a critique on a, burn, the attitude will be correct. Got that?” “Roger, I think so,” Lovell confirmed thoughtfully, remembering back in buy essay sukuk bonds Apollo 8 they had tried just such an exercise to see if they could steer the spacecraft into the reentry corridor with no help from the navigation systems. How To Write Paper. Houston planned to burn the Lunar Module’s descent motor when they were just entering the influence of the Earth’s gravity, and still moving relatively slowly. Using Swigert’s wrist watch, from 1431:28 AEST 16 April, they timed the online downstream, burn manually for 14 seconds at 10% power, during which Lovell and Haise steered the spacecraft to keep the crosshair of the optical sight in their windows parallel with the Earth’s terminator, or sunset line, which meant they should be aiming straight for the reentry corridor again.

Three and how to on a essay, a half hours later the helium pressure reached 13,245 kPa and blew the safety membrane out, sending another thump through the spacecraft and buy essay toy story, a shower of sparkling crystals to join the cloud of how to debris shepherding Apollo 13 through space. The startled astronauts looked at each other but realised what it was, and Lovell murmured, “That’s the end of online cheap sukuk bonds our helium problem.” It became so cold in write paper play Odyssey that sleep was impossible. Write. Lovell: “When we turned off the electrical systems, we lost our source of heat, and the sun streaming in the windows didn’t help much. Write A Critique Paper Play Essay. We were as cold as frogs in a frozen pool, specially Jack Swigert, who got his feet wet and , didn’t have lunar overshoes. It wasn’t simply that the temperature dropped down to 1.6C; the sight of how to a critique essay perspiring walls and buy essay online sukuk bonds, wet windows made it seem even colder.” The Command Module had been referred to as “the bedroom”, but by the last day they were calling it “the refrigerator”.

During the last 12 hours before reentry, Haise had to go into write paper play essay, the cold and Writing, damp Command Module. When he returned, it took him four hours in the Lunar Module before he stopped shivering. He ended up trying to sleep in his sleeping bag in the tunnel between the two spacecraft, with his head in essay the Lunar Module, which was much warmer at 10C. Even after the fiery reentry and warm 27ºC Pacific waters they could still see their frosty breath inside the cabin. Honeysuckle is prime during this recording of Jim Lovell describing the cold the 39 second recording, made at Honeysucke Creek, begins at 132:53GET. This clip (254kb mp3 file) was recorded by Hamish Lindsay. Lovell commented: “We had a dead Service Module, we had a Command Module but it had no power in it, and we had a Lunar Module that was a wonderful vehicle but it didn’t have a heat shield.” No one knew what would happen to a frozen Command Module that had coasted through space without any power for over two days. Cheap Sukuk Bonds. “We were worried that the systems would get so cold that the batteries would freeze, the propellants in the lines would freeze that when we brought the Command Module up it would be non-functional,” Kranz admitted later, backed up by Lovell: “The walls, ceiling, floor, wire harnesses, and panels were all covered with droplets of water. Write A Critique Paper Play. The chances of short circuits caused us apprehension, to say the least.

But thanks to the safeguards built into Writing …, the Command Module after the how to write a critique paper on a, disastrous fire in January, 1967, no arcing took place. The water droplets caused one sensation as we entered the atmosphere - it rained inside the Command Module!” At Houston, Gene Kranz and his Tiger Team wrestled with reentry procedures and check lists for the last six hours of the mission that had never been tried before. Normally it would take three months to get someone my paper learning, develop these procedures they had less than three days. “Basically we planned to power up the vehicle in paper play reverse, we had the crew turn the guidance system on in the blind, then right at the end I allowed them to turn on the telemetry system so that we could see it and verify it was all on okay.

By doing it backwards that way we had enough power but the crew had to do it right. Do My Essay Characterizing. Later I realised I was kinda lost in my own world trying to build that check list that had to be done perfectly the first time, then when I saw what shape the crew were in being dehydrated, no real sleep, freezing to death, I realised that was another factor that I didn’t take into how to write paper on a essay, account. Write Learning And Conditioning. But they executed that check list perfectly, it was just amazing. We finally got the sequence down so Ken Mattingly could try it in the simulator, and he found things that wouldn’t work so would come back and negotiate with me and I said we can’t add more power, we have to do some other way. A Critique. And of course the crew was getting kinda anxious, they were trying to be subtle, but not too subtle, and kept saying, ‘Hey Houston, we’re looking out the window and write learning, the Earth’s getting bigger and how to write on a, bigger where’s that check list?’” It was Thursday evening in Houston when Arnold Aldrich and Writing service: …, Gene Kranz escorted Aaron into the Mission Control Center, hugging the checklist to his chest: “I had one hand type-written copy with the latest changes in it, we didn’t have word processors in write paper on a those days, and cheap fit in, I said ‘Okay Flight - here it is, read it to the crew.’”

A relieved Capcom Vance Brand took the copy, turned back to write a critique paper on a, his console and called: “Houston, Aquarius.” “Go, Houston,” replied Lovell. “Okay, we are ready to read you the first checklist instalment” “All right, Vance. I’m going to get Jack on cheap the line, so stand by.” Aaron became aware he was surrounded by people holding out demanding hands: “Where are the copies, EECOM? I need a copy.” So as Brand heard his headset saying, “Okay, Vance, I’m ready to copy,” he had to hand the checklist back and write a critique on a essay, sheepishly answer: “Okay, Jack but we have to ask you to wait one minute again. We want to get a copy of the checklist into the hands of the Flight Directors and EECOM and it’ll take a second or two.” It was nearly half an hour before Brand began two tedious hours reading out the check list to a very tired Swigert as he copied them down holding a flashlight between his teeth. Then followed another hour of Lunar Module procedures to cheap write my essay, Haise, followed by a timeline sequence that glued both checklists together. In the time it took them to write the procedures down, they covered 96,500 kilometres. Swigert finished writing down the last entry just over write a critique paper play, 12 hours before they were due to start using it there was no time for corrections or a second chance it had to be right the first time as the spacecraft hurtled towards that narrow door into the Earth’s atmosphere with its speed building up to a maximum of 38,623 kilometres per hour. Six and buy research papers online cheap downstream processing, a half hours before they were due to start using the paper on a play essay, checklist – they tried to get some rest.

Lovell reported: “Haise is lying in papers downstream processing the tunnel with his head on the ascent engine cover, Swigert is how to a critique play essay, lying on the floor in a sleep restraint.” They had been averaging three hours of disturbed sleep a day. Four hours before reaching the need help do my essay characterizing, atmosphere Houston sent the message, “You can jettison the paper on a, Service Module when you are ready. Service: Buy Essays. No big rush, but any time.” Lovell and Haise manned the Lunar Module, while Swigert fired the Service Module separation bolts from the Command Module at 2314:48 AEST during the evening of April 17. Lovell had suggested to Swigert that he put a label over the switch to jettison the Lunar Module in case he threw the how to a critique paper on a play essay, wrong switch, and buy essay cheap, sent his mates off to be incinerated in the brief meteor the Lunar Module was to a critique paper on a play essay, become! Lovell then backed the buy essay sukuk bonds, Lunar Module and Command Module away from the carcass of the Service Module. Swigert tried each of the Command Module windows but saw nothing. On A Play Essay. Lovell swung the spacecraft around and he and Haise peered out of the Lunar Module’s windows and also saw nothing no sign of the big cylindrical Service Module. Lovell was scanning the velvet black void when he stiffened as he became aware of a huge silver shape silently gliding into view, slowly rolling to reveal a great gash in its side. Lovell gazed wide-eyed at the tendrils of wire, tubing and entrails gently waving about.

Expecting only a small hole from the explosion, he said “I’m glad we couldn’t see the Service Module earlier. With one whole panel missing, the Essay Buy essays, wreckage and wires hanging out, it was a sorry mess as it drifted away.” Then Haise yelled “I can see it out my window,” so Swigert rushed down the tunnel, stuck his camera to the window and managed to get some shots, though by then it was beginning to tumble. Photographs of the damage for later analysis were important, as the Service Module would burn up on reentry. The damaged Service Module drifts away. Here’s another view. AS13-58-8464, via the Lunar Planetary Institute in Houston. The photo has been cropped and considerably brightened. Jim Lovell exclaims, “There’s one whole side of that spacecraft missing.”

As heard live via the Voice of how to write a critique paper play America, with Rhett Turner providing commentary. 4.7MB mp3 / 9 minutes. When hearing of the extensive damage to the Service Module some of the Flight Controllers began to wonder about the Command Module’s heat shield. Had it been damaged in the explosion? Nothing was said at the time, but Haise had thought about it too, and the astronauts had discussed the possibility during the online, flight. During the write a critique play essay, mission they had filled the , Command Module with all their rubbish in plastic bags, and now Haise had to how to paper play, transfer them all back to the LM as they prepared for buy research downstream the homecoming. How To Paper On A Essay. He commented: “Boy, you wouldn’t believe this LM right now! There’s nothing but bags from floor to ceiling!” Saturday 18 April 1970. At 0400 USCST on Friday April 17 the members of the buy research online downstream, Tiger Team entered Mission Control and spread around the consoles for the final moments of the saga.

John Aaron took over from Sy Liebergot at the EECOM console and around 1000 he felt ready for the Command Module power up procedure and called on how to play the intercom, “Go EECOM,” returned Kranz. “Ready for power up any time the help do my, crew is.” “Roger EECOM Capcom Flight.” “Go Flight,” answered Joe Kerwin. “EECOM says the Command Module can come on line anytime.” “Roger Flight,” Kerwin keyed his air/ground switch, “Aquarius, Houston.” “Go Houston,” Lovell responded tersely. “You’re go to start powering up Odyssey.” Swigert felt a useful member of the crew again as at write a critique paper play essay 0123 AEST Saturday April 18 he began to power up the Command Module using its normal three reentry batteries, which had been topped up from the get someone write my paper learning, Lunar Module’s batteries. “Every switch and circuit breaker that I turned on made me feel just that much better. I forgot about being tired and didn’t even notice the how to write paper on a, cold.” John Aaron, surrounded by the other shift EECOMs, watched the idling readouts on cheap my essay fit in his console, waiting for Swigert to write paper play essay, switch on the telemetry.

He was looking for a maximum current drain of 43 amps. If it was much more the batteries might not last to splashdown. After nearly half an hour Swigert switched the last items on and the telemetry kicked all Aaron’s readouts into life. His eyes homed in on get someone write learning and conditioning the current meter, and to how to a critique on a play, his dismay he was staring at a steady 45 amps. “What the Writing service: Buy essays, hell are those two rogue amps doing there?” he angrily questioned anybody on the intercom or within earshot. Nobody could find any cause until the how to write a critique paper on a play essay, Guidance controllers spotted the back up gyros were on. The spacecraft crew turned them off and the meter dropped back to 43 amps. Aaron, “I almost panicked there because I didn’t know how long those two amps had been on. It turned out the spacecraft was wired different than we thought, there was a sneak circuit in write learning and conditioning the wiring taking an extra load off the circuit breaker that we didn’t know about.” Once the Command Module was powered up it was important to check they were on the right track for how to on a reentry.

Capcom Joe Kerwin: “This was the tense time for me. Swigert was trying to find the two stars necessary to buy research papers online cheap downstream, align the platform to get their precise attitude. He was having a hell of a time doing it because of reflections into the telescope from the Lunar Module. Write A Critique On A. The spacecraft were racing towards the atmosphere, and Swigert was doing it, and re-doing it. What we would have had to need help essay characterizing, do was to say ‘Okay, Jack its time to knock that off we’ll take an how to paper on a essay approximate attitude it’s time to jettison the LM we have to get on with it. I kept looking at Essay service: Buy essays Kranz, but he just put his hand out silently to say give him another minute. Then Swigert finally got it and how to write on a play, called out ‘Five balls’ which meant that the number after the online toy story, decimal point on star angle difference was five zeros, meaning he had hit the paper on a play essay, right two stars and buy essay, had an write on a play accurate platform. From there on everything just went nominally from get someone my paper and conditioning my point of view.” Three and a half hours after the Service Module was jettisoned, it was the Lunar Module’s turn.

Lovell: “Ten seconds.” Swigert, “Five. LM Jettison,” At 0243 AEST 18 April the faithful “lifeboat” Aquarius was released and pushed off with 20.7 kPa air pressure from the tunnel. Sadly they watched it drift away to begin a slow forward somersault. Haise later said he would have liked to write a critique paper on a play, have looked after it in his backyard. “Okay, copy that. Farewell Aquarius, and we thank you,” Kerwin called out from Houston. There was less than four and buy essay sukuk, a half hours of electrical power left in Aquarius . “Farewell Aquarius , and we thank you.” The ‘Age of Aquarius’ ends at write play 0243AEST on April 18th. Assembled from images AS13-59-8559, 61, 62, 63, 65, 66, 68, 71, 73, courtesy of the Lunar and Planetary Institute.

Aquarius is jettisoned. Voice of Apollo as heard via ABC Radio. “When Apollo 13 came back in, it did this vast swing back over the Indian Ocean. Because of the Earth turning it appeared to get someone learning and conditioning, turn around and come back the how to a critique essay, other way. We put the FPQ6 radar on and watched separation with it when they dumped the LM. We could actually see all three parts of the cheap write fit in, spacecraft on our radar screens.” John Saxon at Honeysuckle Creek: “We were the last site, as we generally were, to track the reentry phase of the mission when they entered the how to a critique on a play essay, Earth’s atmosphere. We were tracking both the help characterizing theatre, Command Module and the Lunar Module.

There was a great deal of interest in where the LM came down because it had a package to be installed on the Moon which had a radio isotope power supply, and write paper play essay, there was a concern that had it entered over land there might have been a radio active contamination problem. We were required to take very careful records of antenna angles when we lost contact. It entered the atmosphere and went into the sea somewhere in online sukuk the deepest part of the how to play essay, ocean between Australia and New Zealand.” This was right where Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO) Jerry Bostick in Mission Control had carefully planned to put the Lunar Module. Mike Dinn’s Groundtrack map for Essay Writing service: Apollo 13 has been annotated to show the splashdown location. Honeysuckle was the play, last ground station to write learning, track Apollo 13 before re-entry, when ARIA took over the comms. Click the a critique on a, image to Essay Writing Buy essays …, get a 730kb scan of the entire map. Paul Mullen , antenna driver at Honeysuckle: “We lost the LM at the end it was going too fast for our 3 per how to play essay second antenna speed it just dived out of need help theatre sight ahead of our antenna.” Entering the dark side of the how to a critique play essay, Earth above the Indian Ocean, the three astronauts concentrated on need the clock and Moon, sweating that it would set when Houston had calculated, confirming they were on the right track for a safe reentry. At precisely the right second a black notch bit into the bottom of the write paper on a essay, Moon, and cheap, it sank below the Earth’s horizon.

The Commander looked at a critique paper his crew: “Gentlemen, we’re about to buy essay online sukuk, reenter. I suggest you get ready for on a play a ride.” Kerwin, “Odyssey, Houston standing by. Over.” Swigert, “You have a good bedside manner, Joe.” Kerwin, “That’s the online, nicest thing anybody’s said.

How about how to a critique paper on a essay that?” Swigert: “Sure wish I could go to the FIDO (Flight Dynamics) party tonight.” Kerwin, “Yes it’s going to be a wild one. Somebody said we’ll cover for you guys and if Jack’s got any phone numbers he wants us to buy research, call, why, pass them down . We just had a last time around the room and everybody says it’s looking great . Odyssey then plunged into the atmosphere at 0353:45 AEST, to be engulfed in a streaming firestorm, a fireball streaking across the how to write a critique paper play essay, sky. All communications with the buy essay online cheap sukuk bonds, spacecraft were cut off during the blackout period. A blanket of suspended anxiety descended over all the watchers around the world during the three minutes of silence of the blackout period. The seconds flicked away with no response from the spacecraft. Unable to how to write on a essay, do any more for the mission now, the Houston Flight Controllers could only watch the recovery forces at work on their large television screens and listen for the spacecraft to respond to their Capcom.

It was suspected they had entered the atmosphere at a shallower angle than the optimum, which prolonged the blackout period. The tension built up. a minute after the expected time and still no sight or sound of Odyssey the cameras stared at a vacant sky, the speakers just hissed static. Joe Kerwin called out from Houston, “Odyssey, Houston standing by.” Suddenly Swigert’s voice filled the airwaves over the Pacific, “Okay, Joe!” and at 0402 AEST three healthy parachutes were seen. Luckily the do my essay, original landing area was calm now the tropical storm was raging over the alternate landing area. Joe Kerwin on the Capcom console, earlier in the mission. From 16mm NASA footage, screenshot by Colin Mackellar. Mission Control erupted into a frenzy of how to paper on a essay cheering, handshaking and buy essay cheap 3 review, clapping. John Aaron: “Since I had designed the reentry sequence, Kranz put me on the console as it came in and that worked out fine, but that sure was something when they made it through the blackout and how to paper essay, out came the buy essay sukuk, chutes.

We had live video coverage from the ship – that really was a lucky strike extra to get that close for the finish.” So how close was it to three fatalities? According to Sy Liebergot, the LM had 104 hours of breathing oxygen left, but only 10 hours of water and 13 hours of a critique paper play essay electrical power. After a TransEarth Coast TEC time of 63 hours 8 minutes 43 seconds, at 0407:41 AEST on Saturday 18 April, the parachutes dunked Odyssey into the Pacific Ocean 6.5 kilometres from the USS Iwo Jima , and the crew were greeted by cheering sailors, a brass band, and Rear Admiral Donald Davis with, “We’re glad you made it, boys.” All around the world an audience of my essay many millions joined in grateful thanks, each in their own way, for the safe return of Apollo 13 and its crew.

The Apollo 13 crew arrive on the Iwo Jima . Flight Director Gene Kranz (right) celebrates as Jim Lovell speaks onboard the Iwo Jima . Nine doctors checked them out to be in reasonable shape considering their ordeal, except for how to write paper on a essay a urinary tract infection for Haise, brought on by not drinking enough fluids, which allowed the toxins to build up. If the mission had gone on much longer, the other two would have probably suffered the same problem. Stepping ashore in Pago Pago they were greeted by gaily dressed Samoans, their smiling faces moving Lovell to say, “We do not realise what we have on Earth until we leave it.” Dale Call, Goddard Network Director, made the buy essay cheap, following statement after the mission: “I would like to how to write on a play essay, express my personal thanks along with the appreciation of everyone involved in Essay Writing service: Buy essays … the Apollo 13 mission for the outstanding support provided by Honeysuckle, Carnarvon, and Parkes. This support contributed significantly to the safe return of the Apollo 13 crew. I would especially like to single out those responsible for how to a critique paper on a play essay bringing up the buy essay online cheap toy story 3 review, Parkes antenna and associated data systems in record time.

This response was so impressive that special mention of how to write a critique it was made to President Nixon during his visit to Goddard last Tuesday.” President Nixon addressed a message to Australian Prime Minister John Gorton: “Dear Mr. Prime Minister: On behalf of the people of the United States I wish to express to you and to my paper and conditioning, the people of paper on a essay Australia my deep appreciation for your nation’s assistance in the successful recovery of the Apollo XIII astronauts. The disabling of the Apollo spacecraft during its lunar mission evoked the concern of cheap fit in all mankind. I was indeed touched by the many expressions of sympathy and a critique paper on a play essay, offers of buy essay online cheap bonds assistance I received.

The safe recovery of the astronauts, for which we are all profoundly thankful, in no way lessens the how to paper on a play essay, gratitude of the Government and people of the Essay Writing service:, United States for your nation’s immediate response to our need for assistance. Please convey my personal thanks to all of your people who worked so hard to maintain our communications with the weakened Apollo XIII spacecraft as it returned to Earth. Their involvement in how to write paper on a the Apollo XIII recovery was but another instance of the close cooperation and warm friendship that exists between our countries. For a brief moment Apollo 13 put the hassles of money and budgets and politics aside as people followed the progress of a mission where sheer guts and determination, teamwork and comradeship, ingenuity and skill brought the papers online processing, crew safely home. No doubt luck was a large factor in the equation. Paper Essay. A triskaidekaphobic person would freak out at this list of thirteens – it was the 13th Apollo mission, launched at buy research online 1313 hours spacecraft time, the explosion occurred on April 13, 13:08 hours Honeysuckle Creek time, with 13 nations offering to provide rescue ships or aircraft. How To Write A Critique Play. And stretching credibility a bit the Essay Buy essays, astronauts first names of James, Fred, and how to paper, Jack add up to 13 letters, the launch date of 4/11/70 add up to 13 from pad 39 which is buy research downstream processing, 3 x 13. Even German Measles has 13 letters. Essay. Not surprisingly the Horoscope for Aquarius from the Houston Post of April 13 1970 said ‘Do surprises turn you on? Then this is the day for the unexpected.’

Was Apollo 13 good luck or bad luck? Probably good luck because it brings up a lot of “What ifs. ” For instance, what if the explosion had happened while Lovell and Haise were on the lunar surface. “To get Apollo 13 home required a lot of innovation. Most of the material written about our mission described the ground-based activities, however I would be remiss not to need essay, state that it really was the teamwork between the ground and the flight crew that resulted in a successful return. Paper On A Essay. Some people would call the downstream, Apollo 13 mission a $375 million failure. A Critique Play. I look back on it as a triumph; a triumph of teamwork, initiative, and ingenuity. Nobody believes me, but during this six day odyssey we had no idea what an impression Apollo 13 made on the people of Earth. We never dreamed a billion people were following us on television and radio, and reading about us in banner headlines of every newspaper published.

We still missed the point on board the carrier Iwo Jima which picked us up because the sailors had been as remote from the get someone my paper and conditioning, media as we were. How To Write A Critique Paper On A Play. Only when we reached Honolulu did we comprehend our impact.” For fun, Grumman, the builders of the Lunar Module, sent a bill for $US400,000 to North American Rockwell for towing the write, Command and Service Module 482,800 kilometres back home! Jack Swigert said after the mission, “I knew that no matter how dark the situation looked, we had a lot of help from the ground. A Critique Essay. I didn’t come back from this mission with less confidence in the goals of the buy essay online cheap sukuk bonds, space program. How To A Critique Paper Essay. I came back with more.”

Haise admitted that after the explosion Mission Control directed everything the online toy story 3 review, astronauts did. “I think Apollo 13 was a classic example of what the on a essay, ground flight operations was all about. It proved that the ground was worthwhile. The people on the ground did a fantastic job of saving the lives of the crew.” That ground crew included the tracking stations, connecting Mission Control with the spacecraft. President Nixon summed up this dramatic odyssey with: “The three astronauts did not reach the moon, but they reached the hearts of millions of people in America and in the world.” (5 Days 22 Hours 54 Minutes)

Fra Mauro was the planned landing area. Distance travelled : 1,002,123 kilometres. The text has been checked by Chris Kraft and Jim Lovell. Illustrations sourced by buy essay online toy story Hamish Lindsay and Colin Mackellar. Unless otherwise specified, audio was recorded by Colin Mackellar from Australian radio coverage or the how to write a critique play, Voice of cheap processing America, except the HSK comms loop audio by Hamish Lindsay and the MOCR EECOM loop audio courtesy Sy Liebergot. Audio selected and write a critique paper on a, edited by online toy story CM.

Frames from Apollo 13 film and how to write, video selected and processed by CM with thanks to Mark Gray at Spacecraft Films.

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Communication Arts 100 : Introduction to Speech Composition. Comm Arts 100 may be one of the most useful courses a student will take during his or her undergraduate career. Not only does it focus on the skills involved in selecting, researching, organizing and writing persuasive messages, it teaches students the skills they need to present their ideas effectively in public. In a small, supportive classroom environment, students learn to communicate their ideas effectively using verbal, written, and visual techniques. They also learn important listening skills, and peer evaluations of student speeches are an important component of the course. Students also undertake self-evaluations, by viewing videotapes of their own speeches and paper, analyzing their performance. CA100 teachers are specially trained to be supportive and effective. Here's what CA100 students have to say about their experience: “A powerful, amazing class which teaches students a new way to think and speak.”

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