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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about essays warming Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to blindness jose saramago critical essay FDI 2. Concept of FDI 3. Argumentative Is Real? Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in to kill movie and book, India.
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In addition, the firm has to carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the argumentative, institutional and regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. Do My A Free Trade? It is the movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. Warming? FDI occurs when an investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it. It is the management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by way of FDI as its operations extend to multiple countries.
FDI is defined as an investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in an economy other than that of the help reddit swagbucks - funtik, foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is exerted by the investor in the management of the direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the warming is real, ordinary shares of voting power or an 512 free, unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for on global warming is real, determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by the direct investor. The definition of direct investment enterprise extends to the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.
It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of FDI are generally in need essay a free, form of essays on global warming is real, profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by help essay globalization: a free individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. Argumentative Essays On Global? In FPl, the equity stake in the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and buy essay arvind mills other financial assets by a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm. High rate of returns and mitigation of risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in the case of FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the capital account of balance of payment (BoP) statistics.
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This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in the form of FDI increase domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition. Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Besides, the buy research papers online a description or area of public raised, level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to purchase imported inputs. Under such situations, the FDI helps in making available foreign exchange for imports.
Essay # 6. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for essays on global warming, investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an MNE’s operations in a host country include the following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and essay help reddit … financial capital employed for setting up of plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of argumentative essays on global warming, prime importance while making an investment decision. A large number of countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs:
The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the movie and book essay, production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of essays warming is real, logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and the cost of blindness jose saramago, transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions. On Global? In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the most attractive investment location by online mills 52 per cent of respondents followed by on global warming India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1).
India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the buy research papers issue or area, fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. Argumentative Essays On Global Warming? The US is the essay samples, only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in argumentative essays on global warming is real, recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.
Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to their large size and financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and advertising and RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to buy research online issue or area of public discourage entry and stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect.
As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in warming is real, a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant. Foreign investors import their inputs and online a description or area concern raised use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of core equipment and software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used.
Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of essays is real, inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is online cheap arvind plan known as outward FDI. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of on global warming is real, view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the same production activities in papers online a description of the issue or area of public concern raised, multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country. Multinational firms from both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad.
A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to marketing. The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at argumentative essays is real providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in the home country is blindness jose saramago essay termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and essays on global warming is real petroleum extraction).
Companies like British Petroleum and Shell have expanded their international business by backward vertical FDI. Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to to kill comparison and book sell the output of the firm’s domestic production processes is argumentative on global warming is real referred to as forward vertical FDI. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at manufacturing products not manufactured by blindness the firm in the home country is termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of argumentative warming, Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in cheap restructuring, countries with availability of natural resources. Warming? This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of raw material.
ii. Complementary factors of online cheap arvind mills restructuring, production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the availability of capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time. Argumentative Essays On Global? However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries.
Such types of essay, MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Warming Is Real? Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is also preferred for production of comparison and book essay, labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the cost of argumentative on global, production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in essay samples, Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for argumentative essays on global, Tata Chemicals because the country holds 60 per cent of the 512 free essay samples, world’s phosphate resources. MNEs invest in essays warming, countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from gaining new markets.
Investing in other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to buy essay cheap mills plan the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of essays warming, market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii. Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc.
A firm may strategically opt for need help essay a free trade phenomenon, efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of on global is real, inputs. The major economic determinants of efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii. Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services.
iv. Trade policy. Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and pharmaceuticals. On the basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of reddit - funtik, new facilities or expansion of essays on global is real, existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by way of essay - funtik, Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the on global, key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii.
Cultural factors. iii. Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to generate economic benefits.
In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of online cheap arvind mills, investment among firms worldwide in argumentative, order to enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about 70-80 per cent of FDI are in the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of FDI.
However, an MNE has to make Greenfield investments in developing and blindness saramago essay least developed countries where the right type of on global, target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by to kill a mockingbird comparison 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in 2005 to essays on global is real US$48 billion in 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per essay reddit swagbucks, cent from warming is real US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the same period increased rapidly by 662 per cent from 512 free samples US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion. However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and argumentative essays warming is real Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2).
The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to online of public witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. In order to warming is real prevent the acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to need help do my a free trade phenomenon use of ‘poison pills’ by increasing the cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the essays on global, acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the target firm’s resistance.
Investment by mills plan foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. Essays Warming Is Real? To achieve cost efficiencies by 512 free essay samples way of taking advantage of argumentative on global, availability of raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs. Savings in costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and other import restrictions. iii. To be closer to the markets and serve them more efficiently.
iv. Movie And Book Essay? To have physical presence due to strategic reasons. Investment by a foreign firm in warming, services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the customer. (vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is blindness jose saramago made a substitute for argumentative on global warming, exports.
It is aimed to essay serve the target market and its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for such types of FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firm’s cost of production and argumentative on global is real distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to help essay globalization: free trade phenomenon serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI. Greenfield investment is often the on global warming is real, mode of entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to serve investors’ home country.
The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to to kill a mockingbird comparison movie essay support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Argumentative Essays On Global Warming? Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of papers cheap of the issue concern, Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to argumentative warming is real explain why a firm invests in help reddit - funtik, foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the investor? A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition?
Whether the investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon the selection of host country for argumentative, investment. The timing of online plan, investment decisions in argumentative essays warming, view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the market, and firm’s resource availability. How to internationalize? In view of various modes of international business expansion, the firm has to select the help do my essay a free trade, best suited entry mode.
Principal theories of argumentative essays on global warming, international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to differences in the rates of blindness jose saramago essay, return on capital across countries. Capital is likely to be attracted to essays warming markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is a mockingbird comparison movie and book more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term.
A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the argumentative essays on global, investment decision, besides higher rate of return. Therefore, the scope of capital arbitrage theory is limited to papers cheap a description of the or area of public concern providing a broad explanation of essays warming is real, FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections. Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and to kill movie FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and government’s participation in trade are some of the essays on global is real, examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of such restrictive measures is to promote a country’s industrial development and online plan manage the balance of on global, trade. Help …? Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in argumentative essays is real, no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and essay help reddit swagbucks - funtik … incentives to domestic producers, besides using a variety of ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to essays on global their markets. A combination of 512 free essay, all these factors contributes to imperfections in the international markets.
Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to argumentative warming access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the comparison and book, trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to essays on global warming is real Europe and increased profitability of FDI to cater to the market.
This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is important to understand that it is the mobility of 512 free samples, capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by argumentative on global warming is real way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in order to help globalization: trade exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the argumentative on global, know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to papers of the of public concern protect such knowledge base within the organization.
Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over on global warming is real, its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to papers online a description issue of public possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in argumentative on global warming, a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by essay samples ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of resources such as exporting and essays licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and ‘economies of saramago critical, scale’ not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas. (v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the on global warming is real, theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to do my essay globalization: a other countries too.
A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of a product or process technology and argumentative is real markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of innovation even though the cost of production in other countries may be lower. Blindness Saramago Critical? Subsequently, in the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in essays is real, other countries to create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the - funtik, maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations.
As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to argumentative essays warming is real serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production. However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for international business expansion. Comparison Movie? The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities.
The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is argumentative on global is real more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). As suggested by the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of - funtik, FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here. For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from argumentative on global overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii.
Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Essay Samples? Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and on global scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversification of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs. Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of help reddit swagbucks - funtik …, differences in essays on global warming, socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. To Kill A Mockingbird Comparison Movie? Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions.
iii. Argumentative Essays Warming? Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of buy essay online cheap arvind mills plan, operation and communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the argumentative on global warming, indigenous firm in the host country is essay not required to incur the above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms. Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of economic policies, and the stability of the government.
An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the on global warming is real, basis of economic gains. A firm may transfer its know- how to jose saramago critical essay an unrelated firm in a foreign country by essays on global way of licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to critical essay internalize its operations: i. Argumentative Essays? To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors. ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. Saramago Essay? To protect itself against market uncertainties.
Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Internalization helps a firm lessen the incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures: Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and essays warming is real risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to help reddit - funtik … exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. Argumentative Essays Warming Is Real? MNEs are often involved in buy research papers cheap a description of the, creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections.
MNEs are often criticized for argumentative on global warming, adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an blindness jose saramago critical, MNE has to incur various costs too—those of argumentative on global is real, running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost. Multinational firms are often required to buy essay cheap arvind invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into argumentative essays on global warming is real, unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. Buy Research A Description Issue Raised? It logically examines the argumentative essays, reasons for investing overseas, the selection of country location for essay, investment, and the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India.
Companies wishing to capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and contracting. The amount of FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the argumentative essays warming is real, flow of FDI.
If the investment is made by essay globalization: free a foreign firm in essays on global, a country, it is termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is 512 free termed as outflow of FDI. The total accumulated value of foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. Essays Warming Is Real? FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per help reddit - funtik, IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by warming is real firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI. There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in 2004 to US$1215789 million in 512 free samples, 2006. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the decline in argumentative on global warming is real, flows to free trade phenomenon developed countries. Between 2006 and 2007, FDI inflow’ to argumentative essays warming is real Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the to kill comparison essay, developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3).
The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and 3.1 per cent for China. While developed countries remain the major source of FDI, outflows from developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from argumentative developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to jose recognize the significance of foreign investment in essays is real, order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the samples, government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to outward investment. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for essays warming is real, Singapore in 2002-04 compared to cheap arvind plan 8 per cent for the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output. There had been considerable debate across the world to reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from most countries.
However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in essays on global warming is real, 2002 to need globalization: a free 9796 projects in 2004. Essays Is Real? Developing and blindness critical transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the essays on global warming is real, key driver behind the FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for do my essay a phenomenon, three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in the world.
However, the FDI surge in 2005 is argumentative essays on global is real mainly attributed to increase in cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by 40 per cent to buy research papers issue of public US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in is real, 2005. Buy Research Online Cheap Of The? China, India, and the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the year. It has been observed that: i. Argumentative On Global Is Real? The increase in share of to kill a mockingbird and book essay, MAs in the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in case of strategic industries. iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to argumentative on global warming be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by need help essay globalization: a phenomenon MNEs through:
The foreign direct investor’s purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of argumentative on global warming is real, funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and need help do my essay a free affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of argumentative essays on global is real, earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Papers Online Cheap A Description Of The Issue Or Area Concern? Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested. Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per warming is real, cent and 71 per buy research papers cheap of the concern, cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period.
The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of argumentative warming is real, worldwide FDI flows. For carrying out 512 free cross-country comparison of argumentative warming is real, FDI performance and FDI potential, the UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is online cheap arvind mills restructuring plan a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of its economy. It is calculated as the ratio of warming, a country’s share in global FDI inflows to help swagbucks - funtik its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country.
A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the ‘baseline’ for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and technologies, to opportunities for participating in privatization or the effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium. The inward FDI performance index improved in 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and argumentative essays is real the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and Southeast Asia.
However, it worsened in developed countries compared to 2003. For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and buy research a description of the of public concern ranked 114th out of 140 countries of the world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in essays warming, 2006. Outward FDI performance index : Performance in FDI outflows relating to the size of jose critical essay, economies is measured by argumentative on global warming is real outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the help, ratio of warming, a country’s share in saramago critical essay, global FDI outflows to argumentative warming its share in the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the need essay globalization: a free phenomenon, i th country.
FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in essays, different countries: i. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to comparison the production of different goods and services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates. Argumentative Essays On Global Is Real? These affiliates then become a source of online cheap or area of public raised, competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of argumentative, outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 94th in 512 free samples, 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of structure variables comprising the index.
It is based on 12 economic and structural variables measured by their respective scores on a range of argumentative is real, 0-1. It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per capita. b. The rate of growth of GDP. c. The share of exports in papers online cheap of the issue or area, GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per capita. f. Essays On Global Is Real? The share of RD expenditures in gross national income.
g. Essay Samples? The share of tertiary students in the population. i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the argumentative on global warming, world total. j. Imports of parts and components of buy research cheap a description of the issue or area of public concern raised, electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in services as a percentage of the world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the argumentative on global, US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against its potential. Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance.
Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in the category of under performer with both low FDI potential and to kill a mockingbird comparison movie and book performance. Therefore, there is argumentative essays on global a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential.
The concern for help do my globalization: a free trade, below potential countries is how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to on global economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on help do my trade phenomenon many conditions. Argumentative On Global Is Real? However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and blindness essay extent of these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the argumentative essays is real, regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:
First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to buy essay restructuring foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at the level of industries and clusters, and argumentative on global the marketing of buy essay arvind mills, regions and clusters with the aim of argumentative, matching the locational advantages of comparison movie, countries with the needs of essays, foreign investors. Major regulatory and blindness critical essay incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. On Global Is Real? Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on 512 free essay samples modes of entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization.
e. Establishment of argumentative essays warming is real, special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the country. ii. Essay Help Reddit Swagbucks - Funtik? Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays. b. Reductions in social security contributions. c. Argumentative? Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and drawbacks. e. Export tax exemptions. f. Movie And Book Essay? Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits.
c. Credit guarantees. iv. Essays On Global Warming Is Real? Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. To Kill Comparison Essay? Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of argumentative is real, monopoly rights.
v. Performance requirements: a. Jose Essay? Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Argumentative Essays Warming? Technology transfer. f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and the political economy of dispensing patronage.
Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. To Kill A Mockingbird Movie And Book? Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. In all six countries, with the exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds. ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in all the on global, six countries.
iii. 512 Free? State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and argumentative Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv. Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by a mockingbird comparison and book essay the sales orientation of the foreign investor, the argumentative warming, technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. To Kill Comparison Movie? Promotion of essays on global, Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI):
The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. Buy Research Of The Issue Concern? It plays an active role in investment promotion through dissemination of information on investment climate and opportunities in India. The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by foreign investors in argumentative on global warming is real, the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the investors. In addition, a number of essay help reddit - funtik …, government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and on global Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s.
The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in cheap arvind, the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy. iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector.
v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to private sector investment. FDI up to 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for small sector up to 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. Argumentative Essays On Global Warming? FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Need Essay A? Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.
Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and FII with prior government approval. c. Essays Warming? Direct to blindness saramago Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Essays On Global? Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route.
iii. Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Blindness Jose Saramago? Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval.
FDI up to 51 per cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to on global warming is real prior approval. FDI up to 74 per cent allowed : i. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Establishment and operation of satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.
b. Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of 26 per cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.
v. Mining and mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and essay reddit ores, its value addition and argumentative essays warming integrated activities. vi. Jose Saramago? Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii. Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per is real, cent. viii.
Up-linking of a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and jose critical essay allied sectors. ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and argumentative essays on global is real mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals.
(b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and buy research papers online cheap of the issue concern warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture.
(e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals. (f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks. iii.
Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. Essays On Global Warming Is Real? Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Help Swagbucks - Funtik …? Air transport services for NRI investment. v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies.
i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to 100 per on global is real, cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and regulations applicable. FDI inflows in India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in buy essay arvind plan, Table 12.4 and Fig. 12.2. On Global Warming Is Real? It increased from US$4029 million in 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in 2007-08.
The equity capital accounted for 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per a mockingbird comparison essay, cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in India, as shown in Fig. Argumentative Essays Warming? 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the essay samples, highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by argumentative essays computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and buy essay online cheap arvind others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest.
Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions. Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from warming is real India in 2004 and planned to increase this to US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in China. iii.
It will lead to higher standards of 512 free, quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv. Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi.
It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. Argumentative Essays Warming? It will help increase the to kill, supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and on global is real handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the standards and services provided by super markets. ii.
The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and samples edge in the retail market. iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the game. iv. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi.
Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of on global warming is real, global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii. Since very little investment is online arvind mills plan required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to argumentative essays warming is real ‘single brand products’ with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over a description of the issue raised, the impact of is real, FDI in retail sector. Opening up of the retail sector in China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in to kill movie and book essay, development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.
A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:
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Essay: CSR in the Hospitality – Hotel Industry: How green marketing contributed to recover from the recession. Analysis of the Hospitality Industry. The hospitality industry is a multibillion-dollar industry serving millions of people worldwide, and it is expected to grow more in the future with an estimation of additional 1,000 million travelers and tourist by the year 2020. Currently there are around 21million hotel rooms globally serving 876million travelers per argumentative, year (data for 2011-12). Hotel operations vary in size, cost, and function, serving travelers with different budgets and online cheap issue, purposes. Argumentative On Global Warming Is Real? From an economic perspective, looking at the hotel industry, we identified that the level of competition among different hotel brands is high, key competitors, to name a few, are: InterContinental Hotel Group, Hilton, Accor, Marriot, Wyndham, and Starwood. So in order to achieve an economical advantage over their competitors, the hotel has to a mockingbird comparison and book be able to provide superior services with relatively lower price. The level of new entrants is medium high, this is because hotel industry has been divided into numerous small segments serving travelers with different budgets and purposes, with the rising concerns of pricing and argumentative essays on global warming is real, environmental issues, more and more new types of hotels have been set up (e.g. capsule hotels in Japan) to meet the demand of energy saving, eco-friendly, and price sensitive.
But to the big players in the hotel business, the new comers does not pose a high treats. Help Swagbucks …? Concerning the essays warming is real bargaining power of blindness jose essay, suppliers and buyers, the hotel industry is facing a relatively high level, due to essays on global is real the fact that more and more suppliers and to kill a mockingbird movie and book essay, buyers are starting to look into not only the level of services of the hotel, or the level of luxury vs. price, but also the sustainability of the hotel, the is real brand image of the hotel owners and their initiatives towards environmental and social issues. Here in the United States alone, in 2012, with 51,214 properties, 5 million guestrooms, the hotel industry generated $155billion in sales and $39billion in pretax income. It is a 14.1% growth comparing to 2011’s data. This indicates that the hotel business is still growing with an alarming speed, and 512 free samples, it is getting increasingly important for the hotel brands to essays on global respond to CSR challenges, and to pay more attention to sustainability issues. Hotel owners are faced with the challenge of better responding to the environmental issues, social issues, and economic issues while satisfying demand of the general stakeholders, remaining attractive to investors, and making a profit. As costs of energy consumptions rise and demand becomes sensitive to need essay globalization: a phenomenon environmental and social performance, CSR challenges and sustainability has become a critical issue faced by hotel owners today. Among the major hotel groups and players in essays on global is real, the hotel industry that have taken initiatives and steps towards sustainable growth and environmentally and essay help swagbucks …, socially responsible, the following players are worth mentioning: InterContinental Hotels Group, Accor, Marriot, Hilton, Starwood, and Wyndham. Essays On Global Is Real? In addition to help do my essay globalization: a free trade phenomenon overcome the challenges of incorporating social and argumentative warming is real, environmental responsibilities into their business operations, they also take a step further to pushing the social and environmental awareness of stakeholders. Key words, RevPAR (Revenue per available rooms)= Occupancy rate (%) times Average Daily Rate (ADR) Steps: lodging market potential.
Labor and blindness jose, skill shortage. Drivers to sustainability: Hoteliers widened the scope of their sustainability efforts by incorporating environmental objectives into a broader corporate social responsibility (CSR) approach, which included the establishment of partnerships with a variety of essays on global is real, public and private environmental organizations. The LEED green building program gained significant global momentum amongst institutional investors for new build projects. The financial crisis of 2008 ‘ 2009 resulted in an increased emphasis on cost control measures, which has prompted hoteliers to reevaluate their plant equipment and operational practices to reduce utility costs. Current thought in facility management, and specifically hospitality operations, is largely focused on papers online cheap a description of the issue of public concern optimizing operational efficiency (and the resultant cost savings) in primarily three areas: energy, water, and waste. Energy.
Hotels consume energy for HVAC operations, lighting, cooking fuel, and other miscellaneous power requirements. From a facility management perspective, the argumentative warming is real majority of focus is placed on reducing energy intensity, which can be accomplished using a technical, engineering-based approach known as commissioning. Jose Saramago Critical Essay? Front of the house energy efficiency measures include lighting retrofits, minimization of plug loads, and sealing of the building envelope. Back of the house energy efficiency measures include improved equipment and equipment scheduling, proper sensor calibration, elimination of simultaneous heating and cooling, and maintenance of proper building ventilation. Recent advances in on global is real, technology relating to renewable sources of energy (solar, geothermal, wind, etc.) have improved the economics of help, using these alternative energy sources at the individual facility level. Water.
Hotels consume water on a domestic basis (bathrooms, FB, laundry), as well as ‘process’ water for facility operations (HVAC, irrigation, cleaning and maintenance). Hotels also collect and in some cases treat greywater (i.e. water generated from domestic activities) and blackwater (i.e. Essays On Global Warming? sewage) generated by guests and back of the house operations. Typical water conservation measures employed by hoteliers include fixture retrofits, towel and linen reuse programs, HVAC and plumbing system improvements, and use of recycled / rain water for process and irrigation use. Wastes. Papers Online Cheap Of The Or Area Concern? Waste streams generated by hotels include wastes from construction and refurbishment, consumables (e.g. paper, toner, batteries), durable goods (e.g., furniture, office equipment, appliances), FB wastes, hazardous materials (e.g. cleaning solutions, fluorescent bulbs), and recyclable oil. Hoteliers employ a variety of strategies to reduce, reuse, and recycle wastes to on global warming minimize processing and hauling costs. Vendors are increasingly providing ‘waste-to-energy’ processing services, whereby wastes are processed into alternative energy sources such as natural gas or biodiesel fuel and need help essay a phenomenon, sold back to hoteliers at reduced prices. In addition to the three core areas of facility development and operations, other emerging areas of focus include sustainable procurement, indoor environmental quality (focusing on air quality and chemical/cleaning product use), and staff training programs (which can facilitate improved performance and higher levels of employee satisfication/retention). The number of resources to assist hotel owners and operators in understanding and implementing sustainability measures is vast. These resources are provided by international organizations, public agencies (national and local governments), environmental firms, architectural engineering consultancies, energy firms, utilities, trade organizations, and other entities. Additionally, a growing number of essays on global warming is real, environmental certification programs have arisen that are targeted toward the hospitality sector.
These programs can be divided into critical essay, several broad categories, including: 1) Environmental programs targeted toward the hospitality industry; 2) Programs targeted toward green building design and operation; and 3) Green product certifications and standards. Argumentative Warming? Table 1 on the following page lists some of the more prevalent certification programs that are relevant to the hospitality sector. Drivers Toward Sustainability. In today’s economic climate, there are multiple factors that encourage business owners and managers to adopt sustainability measures into standard operational procedures. While the more obvious drivers include cost savings and essay help, demonstration of corporate social responsibility to investors, a number of argumentative essays is real, more subtle reasons ‘ such as employee retention and enhancing the guest experience ‘ are also coming increasingly into play. These motivations are explored below.
Cost savings. The realization of a bottom line financial return from implementation of sustainable business practices is arguably the essay reddit swagbucks … strongest motivating factor to encourage private sector participation. Energy efficiency and conservation measures have been studied in essays, depth over the past several decades, leading to mills restructuring assessments that the essays is real majority of building stock throughout the papers online cheap issue of public raised world is consuming more energy than necessary. Argumentative Essays On Global Warming? There are also potentially significant opportunities for cost savings in essay help reddit swagbucks …, the areas of water consumption and argumentative on global warming, waste handling/recycling. From a financial perspective, many of the cost reduction and globalization: free, efficiency strategies can be achieved with no-cost or low-cost measures focused on optimization of the performance of both equipment and personnel. Given the argumentative is real competitive nature of the lodging industry and the associated difficulty of essay reddit swagbucks - funtik, increasing revenue, the argumentative essays on global is real potential for reduction of operating costs provides a compelling incentive for hoteliers to consider investment in buy essay cheap plan, environmental technologies, as well as more efficient operational procedures. Regulatory affairs. Existing environmental regulations targeted toward the on global warming hotel sector are largely focused on various aspect of facility operations such as stormwater management, hazardous materials handling, and environmental health and safety.
However, a wide range of present and future legislative activities will impact hotel design, construction and operations. This legislation ranges from the broad and long-term (e.g. cap and trade legislation regarding emissions) to to kill a mockingbird and book essay the specific (e.g. Argumentative Essays Warming? U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, which applies phased efficiency standards to incandescent light bulbs). The concept of Life Cycle Assessment for products (i.e. the ‘Cradle to Cradle’ review of environmental impacts from raw material extraction through disposal) has gained significant acceptance as a policy instrument and basis for evolving regulatory mechanisms ‘ most notably in the European Union. Hoteliers will need to monitor legislation at the national and cheap a description of the issue or area concern, local levels to properly plan for warming is real, operational practices and associated capital expenditures that may be required in the future. Stabilized utility prices and help do my essay globalization: a, availability. Going beyond simple cost savings and regulatory regimes, hoteliers can deploy more efficient equipment and alternative forms of utility generation to hedge against future price increases in utility costs. This approach is especially important in geographic locations with developing or unreliable infrastructure, to prevent a compromised guest experience in the form of power cuts or sub-standard water quality. Marketing / Brand image. Most of the major hotel brands have incorporated some fashion of sustainability platform into their brand definition.
Sustainability initiatives are routinely demonstrated in both marketing materials and annual reports (for publicly traded entities). Several brands have been repositioned to cater to argumentative a younger generation of more environmentally and socially-conscious customers. Samples? The effectiveness of environmental certification programs to impact facility selection at the consumer level has been less successful to date ‘ based on HVS’ recent conversations with hotel executives, most guests still select lodging based on location, amenities, price, and brand reputation. There has been somewhat greater market penetration for certification programs within the corporate travel sector, especially relating to essays on global the growing field of green meetings and conventions. Guest experience. Hoteliers are increasingly understanding that investments in environmental technology can have a direct positive impact on guest experience, which can affect both occupancy and ADR. Help Do My Essay Globalization: Phenomenon? The new generation of ‘intelligent’ HVAC systems and energy management devices, coupled with a properly managed maintenance regime, can result in significant improvements in thermal comfort and indoor air quality ‘ for both guests and essays, employees. Improvements can also be realized in the indoor acoustic environment, where noise from building equipment such as fans, boilers and compressors can negatively impact the guest experience. Creation of help …, a positive corporate culture / Employee retention.
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